The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 different feeding systems (based on corn silage as the main ingredient) on the chemical composition of milk and to highlight the potential of untargeted metabolomics to find discriminant marker compounds of different nutritional strategies. Interestingly, the multivariate statistical analysis discriminated milk samples mainly according to the high-moisture ear corn (HMC) included in the diet formulation. Overall, the most discriminant compounds, identified as a function of the HMC, belonged to AA (10 compounds), peptides (71 compounds), pyrimidines (38 compounds), purines (15 compounds), and pyridines (14 compounds). The discriminant milk metabolites were found to significantly explain the metabolic pathways of pyrimidines and vitamin B6. Interestingly, pathway analyses revealed that the inclusion of HMC in the diet formulation strongly affected the pyrimidine metabolism in milk, determining a significant up-accumulation of pyrimidine degradation products, such as 3-ureidopropionic acid, 3-ureidoisobutyric acid, and 3-aminoisobutyric acid. Also, some pyrimidine intermediates (such as l-aspartic acid, N-carbamoyl-l-aspartic acid, and orotic acid) were found to possess a high discrimination degree. Additionally, our findings suggested that the inclusion of alfalfa silage in the diet formulation was potentially correlated with the vitamin B6 metabolism in milk, being 4-pyridoxic acid (a pyridoxal phosphate degradation product) the most significant and up-accumulated compound. Taken together, the accumulation trends of different marker compounds revealed that both pyrimidine intermediates and degradation products are potential marker compounds of HMC-based diets, likely involving a complex metabolism of microbial nitrogen based on total splanchnic fluxes from the rumen to mammary gland in dairy cows. Also, our findings highlight the potential of untargeted metabolomics in both foodomics and foodomics-based studies involving dairy products.

Rocchetti, G., Ghilardelli, F., Carboni, E., Stanislao Atzori, A., Masoero, F., Gallo, A., Milk metabolome reveals pyrimidine and its degradation products as the discriminant markers of different corn silage-based nutritional strategies, <<JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE>>, 2022; Volume 105 (Novembre): 8650-8663. [doi:10.3168/jds.2022-21903] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/217795]

Milk metabolome reveals pyrimidine and its degradation products as the discriminant markers of different corn silage-based nutritional strategies

Rocchetti, Gabriele
Primo
;
Ghilardelli, Francesca;Masoero, Francesco;Gallo, Antonio
2022

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 different feeding systems (based on corn silage as the main ingredient) on the chemical composition of milk and to highlight the potential of untargeted metabolomics to find discriminant marker compounds of different nutritional strategies. Interestingly, the multivariate statistical analysis discriminated milk samples mainly according to the high-moisture ear corn (HMC) included in the diet formulation. Overall, the most discriminant compounds, identified as a function of the HMC, belonged to AA (10 compounds), peptides (71 compounds), pyrimidines (38 compounds), purines (15 compounds), and pyridines (14 compounds). The discriminant milk metabolites were found to significantly explain the metabolic pathways of pyrimidines and vitamin B6. Interestingly, pathway analyses revealed that the inclusion of HMC in the diet formulation strongly affected the pyrimidine metabolism in milk, determining a significant up-accumulation of pyrimidine degradation products, such as 3-ureidopropionic acid, 3-ureidoisobutyric acid, and 3-aminoisobutyric acid. Also, some pyrimidine intermediates (such as l-aspartic acid, N-carbamoyl-l-aspartic acid, and orotic acid) were found to possess a high discrimination degree. Additionally, our findings suggested that the inclusion of alfalfa silage in the diet formulation was potentially correlated with the vitamin B6 metabolism in milk, being 4-pyridoxic acid (a pyridoxal phosphate degradation product) the most significant and up-accumulated compound. Taken together, the accumulation trends of different marker compounds revealed that both pyrimidine intermediates and degradation products are potential marker compounds of HMC-based diets, likely involving a complex metabolism of microbial nitrogen based on total splanchnic fluxes from the rumen to mammary gland in dairy cows. Also, our findings highlight the potential of untargeted metabolomics in both foodomics and foodomics-based studies involving dairy products.
Inglese
Rocchetti, G., Ghilardelli, F., Carboni, E., Stanislao Atzori, A., Masoero, F., Gallo, A., Milk metabolome reveals pyrimidine and its degradation products as the discriminant markers of different corn silage-based nutritional strategies, <<JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE>>, 2022; Volume 105 (Novembre): 8650-8663. [doi:10.3168/jds.2022-21903] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/217795]
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