INTRODUCTION In Italy popular courtyard games have always been a favourite pastime for all children(1). Up to 20 years ago they practise these games spontaneously and joyfully in the playgrounds in afternoon leisure time. The most popular and well-known of these games (although they may be called different names around Italy) are “Nascondino” (Hide and Seek), “ Prendersi” (Touch me),“Palla prigioniera” (ball in the jail), “Mosca cieca”(blind fly),“Giro tondo”(Turn in round), “Campana”(Bell), “ Cavallina”(Small horse). The characteristics of these forms of play are: adaptable and non-structured environments, the presence of flexible and negotiable rules and the adaptability to the numbers of participants. These games have always been considered important because they are spontaneous and enjoyable and encourage the morphological, motor, intellectual and social growth of the children. The study shows how these games, which have been handed down from grandparent to parent to grandchild, have been slowly decreasing or even disappearing over the last two generations. METHODS In 2008 a questionnaire was carried out on the parents of 398 children from 3 to 5 years living in a country town in the North of Italy (192 males and 196 females). The questionnaire included not only questions regarding their children (Children group = G3) but also two additional sections of questions about themselves (Parents group = G2) and the children’s grandparents (Grandparents group= G1). The questionnaires, in all age groups, included the type of games that were most played (F1), the analysis of the places where they were played (F2), the number of players (F3) and the amount of leisure time devoted to the games (F4). The data was collected using the Likert scale and analysed using the statistical method SPSS comparing the 3 groups (G1, G2 e G3) and the four factors quoted above (F1, F2, F3 and F4). RESULTS The results of the questionnaire show clearly that the games played by children today have changed with respect to the other 2 groups in all four of the factors examined. With regard to the type of games (F1) we can see that the practice of courtyard games where the percentage of their presence from G3 to G2 and from G3 to G1 has reduced by 9.9% and 31.9% respectively. We can detect that the only games played by our grandparents and still practised today by children between 3 and 6 are “Nascondino” (Hide and Seek) and “Prendersi” (Touch me); the other movement games are hardly mentioned among the favourites of children today, as they prefer static and virtual games. As for the space required for the games (F2) we can note how the change in generations has forced children to play less and less in open spaces and more and more in interior spaces with reduced possibility to improve their motor skills. Also the numbers of players (F3) has reduced as traditional games in the open air have been replaced by static games. The grandparents said they used to play with a group of 6-15 players whereas the children of today report to play on their own or with 2 friends at the most. With regards to time dedicated to play during the day we have been able to discern a significant reduction; from an average of 4.5 hours a day to 2.05 hours thus being reduced by 50%. DISCUSSION The highlighted reduction in the practice of movement games in the playground constitutes a significant loss of motor habits that reflect the sedentary lifestyle of children today. Numerous studies show a progressive reduction in the use of motor skills due to coordinated factors as well as conditional(2). Furthermore the time dedicated to movement games has reduced and sedentary games have increased. We believe the causes of this situation to be as follows: 1) the arrival of electronic games, which have become more intriguing and interesting for the child than movement games and less tiring; 2) the lack of secure and protected spaces in the open air as old playgrounds are being use for car parks. The children therefore are directed towards static games in the bedroom as open air spaces can be dangerous; 3) in the educational system children are not educated adequately in physical education and it is considered that games should only be used during free time(3). REFERENCES (1) Statistic Yearbook Lombardia Provinces, ISTAT Data, Milan 1970,1975,1980 (2) Filippone et al., SDS n.72, 2007 (3)F.Casolo et al ,2006, Proceedings of the Sport for all Congress, Havana

Casolo, F., Mondoni, M., Frattini, G., Magnoli, G., Galvani, C., Playground games in primary school: comparison of three generations, Abstract de <<ECSS 2010>>, (ANTALYA, 23-26 June 2010 ), ecss editor, Antalya 2010: 624-624 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/30708]

Playground games in primary school: comparison of three generations

Casolo, Francesco;Mondoni, Maurizio;Frattini, Gabriella;Galvani, Christel
2010

Abstract

INTRODUCTION In Italy popular courtyard games have always been a favourite pastime for all children(1). Up to 20 years ago they practise these games spontaneously and joyfully in the playgrounds in afternoon leisure time. The most popular and well-known of these games (although they may be called different names around Italy) are “Nascondino” (Hide and Seek), “ Prendersi” (Touch me),“Palla prigioniera” (ball in the jail), “Mosca cieca”(blind fly),“Giro tondo”(Turn in round), “Campana”(Bell), “ Cavallina”(Small horse). The characteristics of these forms of play are: adaptable and non-structured environments, the presence of flexible and negotiable rules and the adaptability to the numbers of participants. These games have always been considered important because they are spontaneous and enjoyable and encourage the morphological, motor, intellectual and social growth of the children. The study shows how these games, which have been handed down from grandparent to parent to grandchild, have been slowly decreasing or even disappearing over the last two generations. METHODS In 2008 a questionnaire was carried out on the parents of 398 children from 3 to 5 years living in a country town in the North of Italy (192 males and 196 females). The questionnaire included not only questions regarding their children (Children group = G3) but also two additional sections of questions about themselves (Parents group = G2) and the children’s grandparents (Grandparents group= G1). The questionnaires, in all age groups, included the type of games that were most played (F1), the analysis of the places where they were played (F2), the number of players (F3) and the amount of leisure time devoted to the games (F4). The data was collected using the Likert scale and analysed using the statistical method SPSS comparing the 3 groups (G1, G2 e G3) and the four factors quoted above (F1, F2, F3 and F4). RESULTS The results of the questionnaire show clearly that the games played by children today have changed with respect to the other 2 groups in all four of the factors examined. With regard to the type of games (F1) we can see that the practice of courtyard games where the percentage of their presence from G3 to G2 and from G3 to G1 has reduced by 9.9% and 31.9% respectively. We can detect that the only games played by our grandparents and still practised today by children between 3 and 6 are “Nascondino” (Hide and Seek) and “Prendersi” (Touch me); the other movement games are hardly mentioned among the favourites of children today, as they prefer static and virtual games. As for the space required for the games (F2) we can note how the change in generations has forced children to play less and less in open spaces and more and more in interior spaces with reduced possibility to improve their motor skills. Also the numbers of players (F3) has reduced as traditional games in the open air have been replaced by static games. The grandparents said they used to play with a group of 6-15 players whereas the children of today report to play on their own or with 2 friends at the most. With regards to time dedicated to play during the day we have been able to discern a significant reduction; from an average of 4.5 hours a day to 2.05 hours thus being reduced by 50%. DISCUSSION The highlighted reduction in the practice of movement games in the playground constitutes a significant loss of motor habits that reflect the sedentary lifestyle of children today. Numerous studies show a progressive reduction in the use of motor skills due to coordinated factors as well as conditional(2). Furthermore the time dedicated to movement games has reduced and sedentary games have increased. We believe the causes of this situation to be as follows: 1) the arrival of electronic games, which have become more intriguing and interesting for the child than movement games and less tiring; 2) the lack of secure and protected spaces in the open air as old playgrounds are being use for car parks. The children therefore are directed towards static games in the bedroom as open air spaces can be dangerous; 3) in the educational system children are not educated adequately in physical education and it is considered that games should only be used during free time(3). REFERENCES (1) Statistic Yearbook Lombardia Provinces, ISTAT Data, Milan 1970,1975,1980 (2) Filippone et al., SDS n.72, 2007 (3)F.Casolo et al ,2006, Proceedings of the Sport for all Congress, Havana
Inglese
ECSS 2010 Book of abstract
ECSS 2010
ANTALYA
23-giu-2010
26-giu-2010
978-605-61427-0-3
Casolo, F., Mondoni, M., Frattini, G., Magnoli, G., Galvani, C., Playground games in primary school: comparison of three generations, Abstract de <<ECSS 2010>>, (ANTALYA, 23-26 June 2010 ), ecss editor, Antalya 2010: 624-624 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/30708]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/30708
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