Spices, widely used to improve the sensory characteristics of food, contain several bioactive compounds as well, including polyphenols, carotenoids, and glucosynolates. Acting through multiple pathways, these bioactive molecules affect a wide variety of cellular processes involved in molecular mechanisms important in the onset and progress of human diseases. Capparis spinosa L. is an aromatic plant characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Previous studies have reported that different parts (aerial parts, roots, and seeds) of C. spinosa exert various pharmacological activities. Flower buds of C. spinosa contain several bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and glucosinolates. Two different subspecies of C. spinosa L., namely, C. spinosa L. subsp. spinosa, and C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris, have been reported. Few studies have been carried out in C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris. The aim of our study was to investigate the phytochemical profile of floral buds of the less investigated species C. spinosa subsp. rupestris. Moreover, we investigated the effect of the extract from buds of C. spinosa subsp. rupestris (CSE) on cell proliferation, intracellular ROS levels, and expression of the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic enzyme paraoxonase-2 (PON2) in normal and cancer cells. T24 cells and Caco-2 cells were selected as models of advanced-stage human bladder cancer and human colorectal adenocarcinoma, respectively. The immortalized human urothelial cell line (UROtsa) and human dermal fibroblast (HuDe) were chosen as normal cell models. Through an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS), our results demonstrate that C. spinosa subsp. rupestris flower buds contain polyphenols and glucosinolates able to exert a higher cytotoxic effect and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Moreover, upregulation of the expression of the enzyme PON2 was observed in cancer cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that normal and cancer cells are differentially sensitive to CSE, which has different effects on PON2 gene expression as well. The overexpression of PON2 in T24 cells treated with CSE could represent a mechanism by which tumor cells protect themselves from the apoptotic process induced by glucosinolates and polyphenols.

Bacchetti, T., Campagna, R., Sartini, D., Cecati, M., Morresi, C., Bellachioma, L., Martinelli, E., Rocchetti, G., Lucini, L., Ferretti, G., Emanuelli, M., C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris Phytochemical Profile and Effect on Oxidative Stress in Normal and Cancer Cells, <<MOLECULES>>, 2022; 27 (19): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/molecules27196488] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232378]

C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris Phytochemical Profile and Effect on Oxidative Stress in Normal and Cancer Cells

Rocchetti, Gabriele;Lucini, Luigi;
2022

Abstract

Spices, widely used to improve the sensory characteristics of food, contain several bioactive compounds as well, including polyphenols, carotenoids, and glucosynolates. Acting through multiple pathways, these bioactive molecules affect a wide variety of cellular processes involved in molecular mechanisms important in the onset and progress of human diseases. Capparis spinosa L. is an aromatic plant characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Previous studies have reported that different parts (aerial parts, roots, and seeds) of C. spinosa exert various pharmacological activities. Flower buds of C. spinosa contain several bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and glucosinolates. Two different subspecies of C. spinosa L., namely, C. spinosa L. subsp. spinosa, and C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris, have been reported. Few studies have been carried out in C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris. The aim of our study was to investigate the phytochemical profile of floral buds of the less investigated species C. spinosa subsp. rupestris. Moreover, we investigated the effect of the extract from buds of C. spinosa subsp. rupestris (CSE) on cell proliferation, intracellular ROS levels, and expression of the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic enzyme paraoxonase-2 (PON2) in normal and cancer cells. T24 cells and Caco-2 cells were selected as models of advanced-stage human bladder cancer and human colorectal adenocarcinoma, respectively. The immortalized human urothelial cell line (UROtsa) and human dermal fibroblast (HuDe) were chosen as normal cell models. Through an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS), our results demonstrate that C. spinosa subsp. rupestris flower buds contain polyphenols and glucosinolates able to exert a higher cytotoxic effect and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Moreover, upregulation of the expression of the enzyme PON2 was observed in cancer cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that normal and cancer cells are differentially sensitive to CSE, which has different effects on PON2 gene expression as well. The overexpression of PON2 in T24 cells treated with CSE could represent a mechanism by which tumor cells protect themselves from the apoptotic process induced by glucosinolates and polyphenols.
2022
Inglese
Bacchetti, T., Campagna, R., Sartini, D., Cecati, M., Morresi, C., Bellachioma, L., Martinelli, E., Rocchetti, G., Lucini, L., Ferretti, G., Emanuelli, M., C. spinosa L. subsp. rupestris Phytochemical Profile and Effect on Oxidative Stress in Normal and Cancer Cells, <<MOLECULES>>, 2022; 27 (19): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/molecules27196488] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232378]
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