Purposes: Radiomics is a quantitative method able to analyze a high-throughput extraction of minable imaging features. Herein, we aim to develop a CT angiography-based radiomics analysis and machine learning model for carotid plaques to discriminate vulnerable from no vulnerable plaques. Materials and methods: Thirty consecutive patients with carotid atherosclerosis were enrolled in this pilot study. At surgery, a binary classification of plaques was adopted ("hard" vs "soft"). Feature extraction was performed using the R software package Moddicom. Pairwise feature interdependencies were evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. A univariate analysis was performed to assess the association between each feature and the plaque classification and chose top-ranked features. The feature predictive value was investigated using binary logistic regression. A stepwise backward elimination procedure was performed to minimize the Akaike information criterion (AIC). The final significant features were used to build the models for binary classification of carotid plaques, including logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and classification and regression tree analysis (CART). All models were cross-validated using fivefold cross validation. Class-specific accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure evaluation metrics were used to quantify classifier output quality. Results: A total of 230 radiomics features were extracted from each plaque. Pairwise Spearman correlation between features reported a high level of correlations, with more than 80% correlating with at least one other feature at |ρ|> 0.8. After a stepwise backward elimination procedure, the entropy and volume features were found to be the most significantly associated with the two plaque groups (p < 0.001), with AUCs of 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. The best performance was registered by the SVM classifier with the RBF kernel, with accuracy, precision, recall and F-score equal to 86.7, 92.9, 81.3 and 86.7%, respectively. The CART classification tree model for the entropy and volume features model achieved 86.7% well-classified plaques and an AUC of 0.987. Conclusion: This pilot study highlighted the potential of CTA-based radiomics and machine learning to discriminate plaque composition. This new approach has the potential to provide a reliable method to improve risk stratification in patients with carotid atherosclerosis.

Cilla, S., Macchia, G., Lenkowicz, J., Tran, E. H., Pierro, A., Petrella, L., Fanelli, M., Sardu, C., Re, A., Boldrini, L., Indovina, L., De Filippo, C. M., Caradonna, E., Deodato, F., Massetti, M., Valentini, V., Modugno, P., CT angiography-based radiomics as a tool for carotid plaque characterization: a pilot study, <<LA RADIOLOGIA MEDICA>>, 2022; 127 (7): 743-753. [doi:10.1007/s11547-022-01505-5] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/226771]

CT angiography-based radiomics as a tool for carotid plaque characterization: a pilot study

Cilla, Savino;Macchia, Gabriella;Lenkowicz, Jacopo;Boldrini, Luca;Indovina, Luca;Caradonna, Eugenio;Deodato, Francesco;Massetti, Massimo;Valentini, Vincenzo;
2022

Abstract

Purposes: Radiomics is a quantitative method able to analyze a high-throughput extraction of minable imaging features. Herein, we aim to develop a CT angiography-based radiomics analysis and machine learning model for carotid plaques to discriminate vulnerable from no vulnerable plaques. Materials and methods: Thirty consecutive patients with carotid atherosclerosis were enrolled in this pilot study. At surgery, a binary classification of plaques was adopted ("hard" vs "soft"). Feature extraction was performed using the R software package Moddicom. Pairwise feature interdependencies were evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. A univariate analysis was performed to assess the association between each feature and the plaque classification and chose top-ranked features. The feature predictive value was investigated using binary logistic regression. A stepwise backward elimination procedure was performed to minimize the Akaike information criterion (AIC). The final significant features were used to build the models for binary classification of carotid plaques, including logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and classification and regression tree analysis (CART). All models were cross-validated using fivefold cross validation. Class-specific accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure evaluation metrics were used to quantify classifier output quality. Results: A total of 230 radiomics features were extracted from each plaque. Pairwise Spearman correlation between features reported a high level of correlations, with more than 80% correlating with at least one other feature at |ρ|> 0.8. After a stepwise backward elimination procedure, the entropy and volume features were found to be the most significantly associated with the two plaque groups (p < 0.001), with AUCs of 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. The best performance was registered by the SVM classifier with the RBF kernel, with accuracy, precision, recall and F-score equal to 86.7, 92.9, 81.3 and 86.7%, respectively. The CART classification tree model for the entropy and volume features model achieved 86.7% well-classified plaques and an AUC of 0.987. Conclusion: This pilot study highlighted the potential of CTA-based radiomics and machine learning to discriminate plaque composition. This new approach has the potential to provide a reliable method to improve risk stratification in patients with carotid atherosclerosis.
2022
Inglese
Cilla, S., Macchia, G., Lenkowicz, J., Tran, E. H., Pierro, A., Petrella, L., Fanelli, M., Sardu, C., Re, A., Boldrini, L., Indovina, L., De Filippo, C. M., Caradonna, E., Deodato, F., Massetti, M., Valentini, V., Modugno, P., CT angiography-based radiomics as a tool for carotid plaque characterization: a pilot study, <<LA RADIOLOGIA MEDICA>>, 2022; 127 (7): 743-753. [doi:10.1007/s11547-022-01505-5] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/226771]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/226771
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