Background and Purpose: Cadmium exposure has been associated with a greater risk of kidney stone formation in occupational exposure studies, but data on such an association in the general population are scarce. Subjects and Methods: We assessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1988 to 1994 in terms of the risk of stone formation. Persons reporting a history of kidney stones were defined as stone formers (n=749), and the association between a positive history of kidney stones and high environmental cadmium exposure levels (defined as urinary cadmium >1 μg/g) was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, stratifying by sex and adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking habits, region of residence, and daily intake of calcium and sodium. Results: The odds ratio of lithiasis associated with urinary cadmium >1 μg/g was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.86) in females (P=0.019). The association between urinary cadmium and kidney stones was not significant in males. Conclusions: These findings suggest that moderately high levels of urinary cadmium are associated with a greater propensity for kidney stone formation in females in the general population.

Ferraro, P. M., Bonello, M., Frigo, A., D'addessi, A., Sturniolo, A., Gambaro, G., Cadmium Exposure and Kidney Stone Formation in the General Population An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Data, <<JOURNAL OF ENDOUROLOGY>>, 2011; 2011 (25): 875-879 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/94114]

Cadmium Exposure and Kidney Stone Formation in the General Population An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Data

Ferraro, Pietro Manuel
Primo
;
Bonello, Monica
Secondo
;
D'Addessi, Alessandro;Gambaro, Giovanni
Ultimo
2011

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Cadmium exposure has been associated with a greater risk of kidney stone formation in occupational exposure studies, but data on such an association in the general population are scarce. Subjects and Methods: We assessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1988 to 1994 in terms of the risk of stone formation. Persons reporting a history of kidney stones were defined as stone formers (n=749), and the association between a positive history of kidney stones and high environmental cadmium exposure levels (defined as urinary cadmium >1 μg/g) was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, stratifying by sex and adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking habits, region of residence, and daily intake of calcium and sodium. Results: The odds ratio of lithiasis associated with urinary cadmium >1 μg/g was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.86) in females (P=0.019). The association between urinary cadmium and kidney stones was not significant in males. Conclusions: These findings suggest that moderately high levels of urinary cadmium are associated with a greater propensity for kidney stone formation in females in the general population.
Inglese
Ferraro, P. M., Bonello, M., Frigo, A., D'addessi, A., Sturniolo, A., Gambaro, G., Cadmium Exposure and Kidney Stone Formation in the General Population An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Data, <>, 2011; 2011 (25): 875-879 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/94114]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10807/94114
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact