: The antibody-related immune response is mediated by immunoglobulins (Igs), soluble circulating glycoproteins produced by activated B cells that, upon the recognition of specific epitopes on pathogen surfaces, activate, proliferate, and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Although the antibodies are effectors of the humoral immune adaptive response, their overproduction in response to a dysregulated proliferation of clonal plasma cell production in tumoral conditions (i.e., multiple myeloma), enriches the serum and urinary matrices, assuming the crucial role of biomarkers. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the expansion and accumulation of clonally activated plasma cells in bone marrow, determining the release of high amounts of monoclonal component (MC) that can be detected as intact immunoglobulin (Ig), immunoglobulin fragments, or free light chains (FLCs). The importance of detecting biomarkers for the diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis of diseases is highlighted by the international guidelines that recommend specific assays for the analysis of intact Igs and FLC. Moreover, a developed assay called Hevylite® allows for the quantification of immunoglobulins that are both involved (iHLC) and not involved (uHLC) in the tumor process; this is a fundamental aspect of following up the patient's workup and evaluating the progression of disease, together with the treatments response. We here summarize the major points of the complex scenario involving monoclonal gammopathies and MM clinical management in view of advantages derived for the use of Hevylite®.

Napodano, C., Ioannilli, L., Basile, V., Gulli, F., Carnazzo, V., Pignalosa, S., Di Biase, L., Cavaleri, E., Racco, C., Equitani, F., Marino, M., Basile, U., Laboratory and Clinical Settings of Heavy/Light Chain (HLC) Assays in the Management of Monoclonal Gammopathies and Multiple Myeloma, <<JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE>>, 2023; 13 (5): 743-755. [doi:10.3390/jpm13050743] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/236334]

Laboratory and Clinical Settings of Heavy/Light Chain (HLC) Assays in the Management of Monoclonal Gammopathies and Multiple Myeloma

Napodano, Cecilia
Primo
;
Marino, Mariapaola
Penultimo
;
Basile, Umberto
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

: The antibody-related immune response is mediated by immunoglobulins (Igs), soluble circulating glycoproteins produced by activated B cells that, upon the recognition of specific epitopes on pathogen surfaces, activate, proliferate, and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Although the antibodies are effectors of the humoral immune adaptive response, their overproduction in response to a dysregulated proliferation of clonal plasma cell production in tumoral conditions (i.e., multiple myeloma), enriches the serum and urinary matrices, assuming the crucial role of biomarkers. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the expansion and accumulation of clonally activated plasma cells in bone marrow, determining the release of high amounts of monoclonal component (MC) that can be detected as intact immunoglobulin (Ig), immunoglobulin fragments, or free light chains (FLCs). The importance of detecting biomarkers for the diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis of diseases is highlighted by the international guidelines that recommend specific assays for the analysis of intact Igs and FLC. Moreover, a developed assay called Hevylite® allows for the quantification of immunoglobulins that are both involved (iHLC) and not involved (uHLC) in the tumor process; this is a fundamental aspect of following up the patient's workup and evaluating the progression of disease, together with the treatments response. We here summarize the major points of the complex scenario involving monoclonal gammopathies and MM clinical management in view of advantages derived for the use of Hevylite®.
2023
Inglese
Napodano, C., Ioannilli, L., Basile, V., Gulli, F., Carnazzo, V., Pignalosa, S., Di Biase, L., Cavaleri, E., Racco, C., Equitani, F., Marino, M., Basile, U., Laboratory and Clinical Settings of Heavy/Light Chain (HLC) Assays in the Management of Monoclonal Gammopathies and Multiple Myeloma, <<JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE>>, 2023; 13 (5): 743-755. [doi:10.3390/jpm13050743] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/236334]
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