Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effects of frailty and the perceived quality of life (QOL) on the long-term survival (at least 1 year) of patients >= 80 years hospitalized for COVID-19 and the predictors of frailty and QOL deterioration in survivors. Design: This is a single-center, prospective observational cohort study. Setting and Participants: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital and enrolled all COVID-19 patients >= 80 years old consecutively hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2021. Methods: Clinical variables assessed in the Emergency Department (ED), and during hospitalization, were evaluated for association with all-cause death at a follow-up. Frailty was assessed by the clinical frailty scale (CFS), and the QOL was assessed by the five-level EuroQol EQ-5d tool. Multivariate Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors for poor outcomes. Results: A total of 368 patients aged >= 80 years survived the index hospitalization (age 85 years [interquartile range 82-89]; males 163 (44.3%)). Compared to non-frail patients (CFS 1-3), patients with CFS 4-6 and patients with CFS 7-9 had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio 6.75 [1.51, 30.2] and HR 3.55 [2.20, 5.78], respectively). In patients alive at the 1-year follow-up, the baseline QOL was an independent predictor of an increase in frailty (OR 1.12 [1.01, 1.24]). Male sex was associated with lower odds of QOL worsening (OR 0.61 [0.35, 1.07]). Conclusions and Implications: In older adults >= 80 years hospitalized for COVID-19, the frailty assessment by the CFS could effectively stratify the risk of long-term death after discharge. In survivors, the hospitalization could produce a long-term worsening in frailty, particularly in patients with a pre-existing reduced baseline QOL. A long-term reduction in the perceived QOL is frequent in >= 80 survivors, and the effect appears more pronounced in female patients.

Covino, M., Russo, A., Salini, S., De Matteis, G., Simeoni, B., Pirone, F., Massaro, C., Recupero, C., Landi, F., Gasbarrini, A., Franceschi, F., Long-Term Effects of Hospitalization for COVID-19 on Frailty and Quality of Life in Older Adults ≥80 Years, <<JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE>>, n/a; 11 (19): 5787-N/A. [doi:10.3390/jcm11195787] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227008]

Long-Term Effects of Hospitalization for COVID-19 on Frailty and Quality of Life in Older Adults ≥80 Years

Covino, Marcello;De Matteis, Giuseppe;Pirone, Flavia;Massaro, Claudia;Recupero, Carla;Landi, Francesco;Gasbarrini, Antonio;Franceschi, Francesco
2022

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effects of frailty and the perceived quality of life (QOL) on the long-term survival (at least 1 year) of patients >= 80 years hospitalized for COVID-19 and the predictors of frailty and QOL deterioration in survivors. Design: This is a single-center, prospective observational cohort study. Setting and Participants: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital and enrolled all COVID-19 patients >= 80 years old consecutively hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2021. Methods: Clinical variables assessed in the Emergency Department (ED), and during hospitalization, were evaluated for association with all-cause death at a follow-up. Frailty was assessed by the clinical frailty scale (CFS), and the QOL was assessed by the five-level EuroQol EQ-5d tool. Multivariate Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors for poor outcomes. Results: A total of 368 patients aged >= 80 years survived the index hospitalization (age 85 years [interquartile range 82-89]; males 163 (44.3%)). Compared to non-frail patients (CFS 1-3), patients with CFS 4-6 and patients with CFS 7-9 had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio 6.75 [1.51, 30.2] and HR 3.55 [2.20, 5.78], respectively). In patients alive at the 1-year follow-up, the baseline QOL was an independent predictor of an increase in frailty (OR 1.12 [1.01, 1.24]). Male sex was associated with lower odds of QOL worsening (OR 0.61 [0.35, 1.07]). Conclusions and Implications: In older adults >= 80 years hospitalized for COVID-19, the frailty assessment by the CFS could effectively stratify the risk of long-term death after discharge. In survivors, the hospitalization could produce a long-term worsening in frailty, particularly in patients with a pre-existing reduced baseline QOL. A long-term reduction in the perceived QOL is frequent in >= 80 survivors, and the effect appears more pronounced in female patients.
2022
Inglese
Covino, M., Russo, A., Salini, S., De Matteis, G., Simeoni, B., Pirone, F., Massaro, C., Recupero, C., Landi, F., Gasbarrini, A., Franceschi, F., Long-Term Effects of Hospitalization for COVID-19 on Frailty and Quality of Life in Older Adults ≥80 Years, <<JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE>>, n/a; 11 (19): 5787-N/A. [doi:10.3390/jcm11195787] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227008]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227008
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