Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] and glufosinate ammonium [ammonium dl-homoalanin-4-(methyl) phosphinate] are broad-spectrum, nonselective, post-emergence herbicides extensively used in various applications for weed control in both agricultural and non-crop areas. Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the major degradation product of glyphosate found in plants, water, and soil. Due to glyphosate's presumed low mobility, its monitoring in European water was limited. Recently both glyphosate and AMPA have been detected in several groundwater samples in Europe, U.S, Canada, Argentina, and China. Understanding the sources of these substances in water, especially in groundwater used for drinking, becomes a priority. In the present work the occurrences and the main drives of glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate ammonium in the groundwater of hilly vineyards located in the North-West of Italy were evaluated. Groundwater monitoring results showed frequent detection and concentrations above EQSGW for glyphosate and AMPA, while glufosinate ammonium was never detected. More frequent occurrences and higher concentrations were detected in the samples collected from wells located in the farmyards, most of them being used for irrigation and/or preparation of PPPs mixtures. Indeed, AMPA was the only compound detected in one groundwater well used for drinking, at values bellow EQSGw/DWQS. Such monitoring results were not expected as the modelling estimations under local pedoclimatic conditions indicated no risk of leaching to groundwater. However, the modelling performance and output may have been influenced by the non-consideration of important specific processes. Integrating monitoring and modelling results with information concerning the agricultural practices adopted and the wells use and location, possible contamination drivers were identified. These include the non-agricultural use of glyphosate in the farmyard, the point source contamination of wells and the possible transport with the subsurface lateral inflow of water from up-hill vineyard. This study strengthens the position of SETAC EMAG-Pest GW group concerning the necessity of spatial and temporal contextualisation of groundwater monitoring for a better understanding of its contamination drivers by PPPs.

Suciu, N., Russo, E., Calliera, M., Luciani, G. P., Trevisan, M., Capri, E., Glyphosate, glufosinate ammonium, and AMPA occurrences and sources in groundwater of hilly vineyards, <<SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT>>, 2023; 866 (Marzo): 1-9. [doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161171] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/224296]

Glyphosate, glufosinate ammonium, and AMPA occurrences and sources in groundwater of hilly vineyards

Suciu, Nicoleta
;
Calliera, Maura;Trevisan, Marco;Capri, Ettore
2023

Abstract

Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] and glufosinate ammonium [ammonium dl-homoalanin-4-(methyl) phosphinate] are broad-spectrum, nonselective, post-emergence herbicides extensively used in various applications for weed control in both agricultural and non-crop areas. Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the major degradation product of glyphosate found in plants, water, and soil. Due to glyphosate's presumed low mobility, its monitoring in European water was limited. Recently both glyphosate and AMPA have been detected in several groundwater samples in Europe, U.S, Canada, Argentina, and China. Understanding the sources of these substances in water, especially in groundwater used for drinking, becomes a priority. In the present work the occurrences and the main drives of glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate ammonium in the groundwater of hilly vineyards located in the North-West of Italy were evaluated. Groundwater monitoring results showed frequent detection and concentrations above EQSGW for glyphosate and AMPA, while glufosinate ammonium was never detected. More frequent occurrences and higher concentrations were detected in the samples collected from wells located in the farmyards, most of them being used for irrigation and/or preparation of PPPs mixtures. Indeed, AMPA was the only compound detected in one groundwater well used for drinking, at values bellow EQSGw/DWQS. Such monitoring results were not expected as the modelling estimations under local pedoclimatic conditions indicated no risk of leaching to groundwater. However, the modelling performance and output may have been influenced by the non-consideration of important specific processes. Integrating monitoring and modelling results with information concerning the agricultural practices adopted and the wells use and location, possible contamination drivers were identified. These include the non-agricultural use of glyphosate in the farmyard, the point source contamination of wells and the possible transport with the subsurface lateral inflow of water from up-hill vineyard. This study strengthens the position of SETAC EMAG-Pest GW group concerning the necessity of spatial and temporal contextualisation of groundwater monitoring for a better understanding of its contamination drivers by PPPs.
2023
Inglese
Suciu, N., Russo, E., Calliera, M., Luciani, G. P., Trevisan, M., Capri, E., Glyphosate, glufosinate ammonium, and AMPA occurrences and sources in groundwater of hilly vineyards, <<SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT>>, 2023; 866 (Marzo): 1-9. [doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161171] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/224296]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S0048969722082742-main (1).pdf

accesso aperto

Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 2.33 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.33 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/224296
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 16
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact