Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are abundantly released into the systemic circulation, where they show remarkable stability and harbor molecular constituents that provide biochemical information about their cells of origin. Due to this characteristic, EVs are attracting increasing attention as a source of circulating biomarkers for cancer liquid biopsy and personalized medicine. Despite this potential, none of the discovered biomarkers has entered the clinical practice so far, and novel approaches for the label-free characterization of EVs are highly demanded. In this regard, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has great potential as it provides a quick, reproducible, and informative biomolecular fingerprint of EVs. In this pilot study, we investigated, for the first time in the literature, the capability of FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish between EVs extracted from sera of cancer patients and controls based on their mid-IR spectral response. For this purpose, EV-enriched suspensions were obtained from the serum of patients diagnosed with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) of nonviral origin and noncancer subjects. Our data point out the presence of statistically significant differences in the integrated intensities of major mid-IR absorption bands, including the carbohydrate and nucleic acids band, the protein amide I and II bands, and the lipid CH stretching band. Additionally, we used Principal Component Analysis combined with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) for the automated classification of spectral data according to the shape of specific mid-IR spectral signatures. The diagnostic performances of the proposed spectral biomarkers, alone and combined, were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression followed by a Receiving Operator Curve analysis, obtaining large Areas Under the Curve (AUC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.0). Very interestingly, our analyses suggest that the discussed spectral biomarkers can outperform the classification ability of two widely used circulating HCC markers measured on the same groups of subjects, namely alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and protein induced by the absence of vitamin K or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II).

Di Santo, R., Vaccaro, M., Romanò, S., Di Giacinto, F., Papi, M., Rapaccini, G. L., De Spirito, M., Miele, L., Basile, U., Ciasca, G., Machine Learning-Assisted FTIR Analysis of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles for Cancer Liquid Biopsy, <<JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE>>, 2022; 12 (6): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/jpm12060949] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/220264]

Machine Learning-Assisted FTIR Analysis of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles for Cancer Liquid Biopsy

Vaccaro, Maria;Di Giacinto, Flavio;Papi, Massimiliano;Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico;De Spirito, Marco;Miele, Luca;Basile, Umberto;Ciasca, Gabriele
2022

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are abundantly released into the systemic circulation, where they show remarkable stability and harbor molecular constituents that provide biochemical information about their cells of origin. Due to this characteristic, EVs are attracting increasing attention as a source of circulating biomarkers for cancer liquid biopsy and personalized medicine. Despite this potential, none of the discovered biomarkers has entered the clinical practice so far, and novel approaches for the label-free characterization of EVs are highly demanded. In this regard, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has great potential as it provides a quick, reproducible, and informative biomolecular fingerprint of EVs. In this pilot study, we investigated, for the first time in the literature, the capability of FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish between EVs extracted from sera of cancer patients and controls based on their mid-IR spectral response. For this purpose, EV-enriched suspensions were obtained from the serum of patients diagnosed with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) of nonviral origin and noncancer subjects. Our data point out the presence of statistically significant differences in the integrated intensities of major mid-IR absorption bands, including the carbohydrate and nucleic acids band, the protein amide I and II bands, and the lipid CH stretching band. Additionally, we used Principal Component Analysis combined with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) for the automated classification of spectral data according to the shape of specific mid-IR spectral signatures. The diagnostic performances of the proposed spectral biomarkers, alone and combined, were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression followed by a Receiving Operator Curve analysis, obtaining large Areas Under the Curve (AUC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.0). Very interestingly, our analyses suggest that the discussed spectral biomarkers can outperform the classification ability of two widely used circulating HCC markers measured on the same groups of subjects, namely alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and protein induced by the absence of vitamin K or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II).
Inglese
Di Santo, R., Vaccaro, M., Romanò, S., Di Giacinto, F., Papi, M., Rapaccini, G. L., De Spirito, M., Miele, L., Basile, U., Ciasca, G., Machine Learning-Assisted FTIR Analysis of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles for Cancer Liquid Biopsy, <<JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE>>, 2022; 12 (6): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/jpm12060949] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/220264]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/220264
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