Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated gender ideologies and with country-level indices of gender equality and human development. Using data from university samples in 62 countries across 13 world regions (N = 33,417), we demonstrate: (1) the psychometric isomorphism of the PMB (i.e., its comparability in meaning and statistical properties across the individual and country levels); (2) the PMB’s distinctness from, and associations with, ambivalent sexism and ambivalence toward men; and (3) associations of the PMB with nation-level gender equality and human development. Findings are discussed in terms of their statistical and theoretical implications for understanding widely-held beliefs about the precariousness of the male gender role.

Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Vandello, J. A., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Olech, M., Besta, T., Bender, M., Hoorens, V., Becker, M., Timur Sevincer, A., Best, D. L., Safdar, S., Wlodarczyk, A., Zawisza, M., Zadkowska, M., Abuhamdeh, S., Badu Agyemang, C., Akbas, G., Albayrak-Aydemir, N., Ammirati, S., Anderson, J., Anjum, G., Ariyanto, A., Jamir Benzon, R. A. J., Ashraf, M., Bakaityte, A., Bertolli, C., Berxulli, D., Bi, C., Block, K., Boehnke, M., Bongiorno, R., Bosak, J., Casini, A., Chen, Q., Chi, P., Cubela Adoric, V., Daalmans, S., Dandy, J., Lemus, S. D., Dhakal, S., Dvorianchikov, N., Egami, S., Etchezahar, E., Sofia Esteves, C., Felix, N., Froehlich, L., Garcia-Sanchez, E., Gavreliuc, A., Gavreliuc, D., Gomez, A., Guizzo, F., Graf, S., Greijdanus, H., Grigoryan, A., Grzymala-Moszczynska, J., Guerch, K., Gustafsson Senden, M., Hale, M. -., Hamer, H., Hirai, M., Hoang Duc, L., Hrebickova, M., Hutchings, P. B., Hoj Jensen, D., Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Karabati, S., Kelmendi, K., Kengyel, G., Khachatryan, N., Ghazzawi, R., Kinahan, M., Kirby, T. A., Kovacs, M., Kozlowski, D., Krivoshchekov, V., Kulich, C., Kurosawa, T., Thi Lac An, N., Labarthe, J., Latu, I., Anne Lauri, M., Mankowski, E., Musbau Lawal, A., Li, J., Lindner, J., Lindqvist, A., Maitner, A. T., Makarova, E., Makashvili, A., Malayeri, S., Malik, S., Mancini, T., Manzi, C., Mari, S., Martiny, S. E., Mayer, C. -., Mihic, V., Milosevic Dordevic, J., Moreno-Bella, E., Moscatelli, S., Bryan Moynihan, A., Muller, D., Narhetali, E., Neto, F., Noels, K. A., Nyul, B., O'Connor, E. C., Ochoa, D. P., Ohno, S., Olanrewaju Adebayo, S., Osborne, R., Giuseppina Pacilli, M., Palacio, J., Patnaik, S., Pavlopoulos, V., Perez De Leon, P., Piterova, I., Barreiros Porto, J., Puzio, A., Pyrkosz-Pacyna, J., Renteria Perez, E., Renstrom, E., Rousseaux, T., Ryan, M. K., Sainz, M., Salvati, M., Samekin, A., Schindler, S., Seydi, M., Shepherd, D., Sherbaji, S., Schmader, T., Simao, C., Sobhie, R., Souza, L. D., Sarter, E., Sulejmanovic, D., Sullivan, K. E., Tatsumi, M., Tavitian-Elmadjian, L., Jain Thakur, S., Thi Mong Chi, Q., Torre, B., Torres, A., Torres, C. V., Turkoglu, B., Ungaretti, J., Valshtein, T., Van Laar, C., Van Der Noll, J., Vasiutynskyi, V., Vauclair, C. -., Venalainen, S., Vohra, N., Walentynowicz, M., Ward, C., Yang, Y., Yzerbyt, V., Zanello, V., Ludmila Zapata-Calvente, A., Zukauskiene, R., Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations, <<JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY>>, 2021; 52 (3): 231-258. [doi:10.1177/0022022121997997] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/178607]

Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations

Manzi, Claudia;
2021

Abstract

Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated gender ideologies and with country-level indices of gender equality and human development. Using data from university samples in 62 countries across 13 world regions (N = 33,417), we demonstrate: (1) the psychometric isomorphism of the PMB (i.e., its comparability in meaning and statistical properties across the individual and country levels); (2) the PMB’s distinctness from, and associations with, ambivalent sexism and ambivalence toward men; and (3) associations of the PMB with nation-level gender equality and human development. Findings are discussed in terms of their statistical and theoretical implications for understanding widely-held beliefs about the precariousness of the male gender role.
2021
Inglese
Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Vandello, J. A., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Olech, M., Besta, T., Bender, M., Hoorens, V., Becker, M., Timur Sevincer, A., Best, D. L., Safdar, S., Wlodarczyk, A., Zawisza, M., Zadkowska, M., Abuhamdeh, S., Badu Agyemang, C., Akbas, G., Albayrak-Aydemir, N., Ammirati, S., Anderson, J., Anjum, G., Ariyanto, A., Jamir Benzon, R. A. J., Ashraf, M., Bakaityte, A., Bertolli, C., Berxulli, D., Bi, C., Block, K., Boehnke, M., Bongiorno, R., Bosak, J., Casini, A., Chen, Q., Chi, P., Cubela Adoric, V., Daalmans, S., Dandy, J., Lemus, S. D., Dhakal, S., Dvorianchikov, N., Egami, S., Etchezahar, E., Sofia Esteves, C., Felix, N., Froehlich, L., Garcia-Sanchez, E., Gavreliuc, A., Gavreliuc, D., Gomez, A., Guizzo, F., Graf, S., Greijdanus, H., Grigoryan, A., Grzymala-Moszczynska, J., Guerch, K., Gustafsson Senden, M., Hale, M. -., Hamer, H., Hirai, M., Hoang Duc, L., Hrebickova, M., Hutchings, P. B., Hoj Jensen, D., Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Karabati, S., Kelmendi, K., Kengyel, G., Khachatryan, N., Ghazzawi, R., Kinahan, M., Kirby, T. A., Kovacs, M., Kozlowski, D., Krivoshchekov, V., Kulich, C., Kurosawa, T., Thi Lac An, N., Labarthe, J., Latu, I., Anne Lauri, M., Mankowski, E., Musbau Lawal, A., Li, J., Lindner, J., Lindqvist, A., Maitner, A. T., Makarova, E., Makashvili, A., Malayeri, S., Malik, S., Mancini, T., Manzi, C., Mari, S., Martiny, S. E., Mayer, C. -., Mihic, V., Milosevic Dordevic, J., Moreno-Bella, E., Moscatelli, S., Bryan Moynihan, A., Muller, D., Narhetali, E., Neto, F., Noels, K. A., Nyul, B., O'Connor, E. C., Ochoa, D. P., Ohno, S., Olanrewaju Adebayo, S., Osborne, R., Giuseppina Pacilli, M., Palacio, J., Patnaik, S., Pavlopoulos, V., Perez De Leon, P., Piterova, I., Barreiros Porto, J., Puzio, A., Pyrkosz-Pacyna, J., Renteria Perez, E., Renstrom, E., Rousseaux, T., Ryan, M. K., Sainz, M., Salvati, M., Samekin, A., Schindler, S., Seydi, M., Shepherd, D., Sherbaji, S., Schmader, T., Simao, C., Sobhie, R., Souza, L. D., Sarter, E., Sulejmanovic, D., Sullivan, K. E., Tatsumi, M., Tavitian-Elmadjian, L., Jain Thakur, S., Thi Mong Chi, Q., Torre, B., Torres, A., Torres, C. V., Turkoglu, B., Ungaretti, J., Valshtein, T., Van Laar, C., Van Der Noll, J., Vasiutynskyi, V., Vauclair, C. -., Venalainen, S., Vohra, N., Walentynowicz, M., Ward, C., Yang, Y., Yzerbyt, V., Zanello, V., Ludmila Zapata-Calvente, A., Zukauskiene, R., Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations, <<JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY>>, 2021; 52 (3): 231-258. [doi:10.1177/0022022121997997] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/178607]
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