BACKGROUND: Today, women who have undergone liver transplantation enjoy better health, so they encounter more frequently the possibility of living pregnancy. Many questions about the safety of pregnancy are pending. This study analyzes pregnancy outcomes in women with a liver transplant managed at Policlinico Universitario "A.Gemelli." RESULTS: We identified 17 childbirths in 13 women who had undergone a liver transplant. Causes of transplant include congenital or acquired disorders. The mean age at transplant was 22 ± 9 years, mean maternal age at delivery was 33 ± 5 years, and transplant-to-pregnancy interval was 12 ± 6 years. The mean gestational week was 36.1 ± 3.5. All women had normal liver function after pregnancy. Immunosuppressive therapy before and during pregnancy included tacrolimus (n = 8), cyclosporine (n = 5) and mycophenolate mofetil (n = 1). No maternal death was registered. Maternal complications included increase of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, graft deterioration requiring liver retransplantation, increase of bile acids (n = 1), itch (n = 1), and anemia (n = 1). Twelve women had a high adherence to an immunosuppressive regimen during pregnancy. A woman with poor compliance continued therapy with mycophenolic acid during pregnancy, showing preterm birth (25th week) with fetal respiratory failure. Another woman continued therapy with tacrolimus during breastfeeding without adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Liver transplant does not influence women's fertility; during pregnancy, we report low rates of minor graft complications and no major issues. There are no adverse effects on babies. An evaluation by a multidisciplinary team is recommended. Compliance to an immunosuppressive regimen is fundamental to ensure the stability of graft function and to prevent graft deterioration in pregnancy. Moreover, it is suggested to avoid teratogenic drugs, such as mycophenolic acid.

Nure, E., Pascale, M. M., Frongillo, F., Franco, A., Bianco, G., Agnes, S., Pregnancy After Liver Transplant: Neonatal Outcomes and Long-Term Maternal Follow-up, <<TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS>>, 2019; 51 (9): 2948-2951. [doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2019.02.071] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/147881]

Pregnancy After Liver Transplant: Neonatal Outcomes and Long-Term Maternal Follow-up

Pascale, Marco Maria;Frongillo, Francesco;Franco, Antonio;Agnes, Salvatore
2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Today, women who have undergone liver transplantation enjoy better health, so they encounter more frequently the possibility of living pregnancy. Many questions about the safety of pregnancy are pending. This study analyzes pregnancy outcomes in women with a liver transplant managed at Policlinico Universitario "A.Gemelli." RESULTS: We identified 17 childbirths in 13 women who had undergone a liver transplant. Causes of transplant include congenital or acquired disorders. The mean age at transplant was 22 ± 9 years, mean maternal age at delivery was 33 ± 5 years, and transplant-to-pregnancy interval was 12 ± 6 years. The mean gestational week was 36.1 ± 3.5. All women had normal liver function after pregnancy. Immunosuppressive therapy before and during pregnancy included tacrolimus (n = 8), cyclosporine (n = 5) and mycophenolate mofetil (n = 1). No maternal death was registered. Maternal complications included increase of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, graft deterioration requiring liver retransplantation, increase of bile acids (n = 1), itch (n = 1), and anemia (n = 1). Twelve women had a high adherence to an immunosuppressive regimen during pregnancy. A woman with poor compliance continued therapy with mycophenolic acid during pregnancy, showing preterm birth (25th week) with fetal respiratory failure. Another woman continued therapy with tacrolimus during breastfeeding without adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Liver transplant does not influence women's fertility; during pregnancy, we report low rates of minor graft complications and no major issues. There are no adverse effects on babies. An evaluation by a multidisciplinary team is recommended. Compliance to an immunosuppressive regimen is fundamental to ensure the stability of graft function and to prevent graft deterioration in pregnancy. Moreover, it is suggested to avoid teratogenic drugs, such as mycophenolic acid.
Inglese
Nure, E., Pascale, M. M., Frongillo, F., Franco, A., Bianco, G., Agnes, S., Pregnancy After Liver Transplant: Neonatal Outcomes and Long-Term Maternal Follow-up, <<TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS>>, 2019; 51 (9): 2948-2951. [doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2019.02.071] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/147881]
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