BACKGROUND: Studies comparing temperament and character traits between patients with mood disorders and healthy individuals have yielded variable results. METHODS: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 101 bipolar I (BP-I), 96 bipolar II (BP-II), 123 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, and 125 HS. A series of generalized linear models were performed in order to: (a) compare the TCI dimensions across groups; (b) test any effect of the TCI dimensions on clinical features of mood disorders; and (c) detect any association between TCI dimensions and the psychopathological features of a major depressive episode. Demographic and clinical variables were also included in the models as independent variables. RESULTS: Higher Harm Avoidance was found in BP-II and MDD, but not in BP-I. Higher Self-Transcendence was found in BP-I. Our models also showed higher Self-Directedness in HS, either vs MDD or BP-II. No association was found between any TCI dimension and the severity of symptoms. Conversely, a positive association was found between Harm Avoidance and the overall burden of depressive episodes during lifetime. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and the heterogeneity of the sample may be the main limitations of our study. CONCLUSION: In general, our sample seems to support the view of a similar profile of temperament and character between MDD and BP-II, characterized by high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness. In contrast, patients with BP-I only exhibit high Self-Transcendence, having a near-normal profile in terms of Harm Avoidance or Self-Directedness.

Zaninotto, L., Souery, D., Calati, R., Di Nicola, M., Montgomery, S., Kasper, S., Zohar, J., Mendlewicz, J., Robert Cloninger, C., Serretti, A., Janiri, L., Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression, <<JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS>>, 2015; 184 (MAGGIO): 51-59. [doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.036] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/79735]

Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression

Zaninotto, Leonardo;Di Nicola, Marco;Janiri, Luigi
2015

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing temperament and character traits between patients with mood disorders and healthy individuals have yielded variable results. METHODS: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 101 bipolar I (BP-I), 96 bipolar II (BP-II), 123 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, and 125 HS. A series of generalized linear models were performed in order to: (a) compare the TCI dimensions across groups; (b) test any effect of the TCI dimensions on clinical features of mood disorders; and (c) detect any association between TCI dimensions and the psychopathological features of a major depressive episode. Demographic and clinical variables were also included in the models as independent variables. RESULTS: Higher Harm Avoidance was found in BP-II and MDD, but not in BP-I. Higher Self-Transcendence was found in BP-I. Our models also showed higher Self-Directedness in HS, either vs MDD or BP-II. No association was found between any TCI dimension and the severity of symptoms. Conversely, a positive association was found between Harm Avoidance and the overall burden of depressive episodes during lifetime. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and the heterogeneity of the sample may be the main limitations of our study. CONCLUSION: In general, our sample seems to support the view of a similar profile of temperament and character between MDD and BP-II, characterized by high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness. In contrast, patients with BP-I only exhibit high Self-Transcendence, having a near-normal profile in terms of Harm Avoidance or Self-Directedness.
eng
Zaninotto, L., Souery, D., Calati, R., Di Nicola, M., Montgomery, S., Kasper, S., Zohar, J., Mendlewicz, J., Robert Cloninger, C., Serretti, A., Janiri, L., Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression, <>, 2015; 184 (MAGGIO): 51-59. [doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.036] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/79735]
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