: Vaccines prevent a significant number of deaths annually. However, certain populations do not respond adequately to vaccination due to impaired immune systems. Cirrhosis, a condition marked by a profound disruption of immunity, impairs the normal immunization process. Critical vaccines for cirrhotic patients, such as the hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), influenza, pneumococcal, and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), often elicit suboptimal responses in these individuals. The humoral response, essential for immunization, is less effective in cirrhosis due to a decline in B memory cells and an increase in plasma blasts, which interfere with the creation of a long-lasting response to antigen vaccination. Additionally, some T cell subtypes exhibit reduced activation in cirrhosis. Nonetheless, the persistence of memory T cell activity, while not preventing infections, may help to attenuate the severity of diseases in these patients. Alongside that, the impairment of innate immunity, particularly in dendritic cells (DCs), prevents the normal priming of adaptive immunity, interrupting the immunization process at its onset. Furthermore, cirrhosis disrupts the gut-liver axis balance, causing dysbiosis, reduced production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), increased intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation. Undermining the physiological activity of the immune system, these alterations could impact the vaccine response. Enhancing the understanding of the molecular and cellular factors contributing to impaired vaccination responses in cirrhotic patients is crucial for improving vaccine efficacy in this population and developing better prevention strategies.

Airola, C., Andaloro, S., Gasbarrini, A., Ponziani, F. R., (Abstract) Vaccine Responses in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: From the Immune System to the Gut Microbiota, <<VACCINES>>, N/A; 12 (N/A): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/vaccines12040349] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/277641]

Vaccine Responses in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: From the Immune System to the Gut Microbiota

Airola, Carlo;Andaloro, Silvia;Gasbarrini, Antonio;Ponziani, Francesca Romana
2024

Abstract

: Vaccines prevent a significant number of deaths annually. However, certain populations do not respond adequately to vaccination due to impaired immune systems. Cirrhosis, a condition marked by a profound disruption of immunity, impairs the normal immunization process. Critical vaccines for cirrhotic patients, such as the hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), influenza, pneumococcal, and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), often elicit suboptimal responses in these individuals. The humoral response, essential for immunization, is less effective in cirrhosis due to a decline in B memory cells and an increase in plasma blasts, which interfere with the creation of a long-lasting response to antigen vaccination. Additionally, some T cell subtypes exhibit reduced activation in cirrhosis. Nonetheless, the persistence of memory T cell activity, while not preventing infections, may help to attenuate the severity of diseases in these patients. Alongside that, the impairment of innate immunity, particularly in dendritic cells (DCs), prevents the normal priming of adaptive immunity, interrupting the immunization process at its onset. Furthermore, cirrhosis disrupts the gut-liver axis balance, causing dysbiosis, reduced production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), increased intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation. Undermining the physiological activity of the immune system, these alterations could impact the vaccine response. Enhancing the understanding of the molecular and cellular factors contributing to impaired vaccination responses in cirrhotic patients is crucial for improving vaccine efficacy in this population and developing better prevention strategies.
2024
Inglese
Airola, C., Andaloro, S., Gasbarrini, A., Ponziani, F. R., (Abstract) Vaccine Responses in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: From the Immune System to the Gut Microbiota, <<VACCINES>>, N/A; 12 (N/A): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/vaccines12040349] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/277641]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/277641
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact