Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolic events, which have a considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of thrombotic events in patients with IBD. However, many unresolved questions remain, particularly regarding the mechanisms that determine the persistent inflammatory state independent of disease activity. This review explored the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which are considered distinctive features of IBD, in determining pro-thrombotic tendencies. Gut-derived endotoxemia due to the translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the intestine to the bloodstream and the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) are the most important molecules involved in gut dysbiosis-related thrombosis. The pathogenic prothrombotic pathways linked to LPS and TMAO have been discussed. Finally, we present emerging therapeutic approaches that can help reduce LPS-mediated endotoxemia and TMAO, such as restoring intestinal eubiosis, normalizing intestinal barrier function, and counterbalancing the effects of LPS and TMAO.

Papa, A., Santini, P., De Lucia, S. S., Maresca, R., Porfidia, A., Pignatelli, P., Gasbarrini, A., Violi, F., Pola, R., Gut dysbiosis-related thrombosis in inflammatory bowel disease: Potential disease mechanisms and emerging therapeutic strategies, <<THROMBOSIS RESEARCH>>, 2023; 232 (232): 77-88. [doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2023.11.005] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/275574]

Gut dysbiosis-related thrombosis in inflammatory bowel disease: Potential disease mechanisms and emerging therapeutic strategies

Papa, Alfredo
;
Santini, Paolo;De Lucia, Sara Sofia;Maresca, Rossella;Porfidia, Angelo;Gasbarrini, Antonio;Pola, Roberto
2023

Abstract

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolic events, which have a considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of thrombotic events in patients with IBD. However, many unresolved questions remain, particularly regarding the mechanisms that determine the persistent inflammatory state independent of disease activity. This review explored the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which are considered distinctive features of IBD, in determining pro-thrombotic tendencies. Gut-derived endotoxemia due to the translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the intestine to the bloodstream and the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) are the most important molecules involved in gut dysbiosis-related thrombosis. The pathogenic prothrombotic pathways linked to LPS and TMAO have been discussed. Finally, we present emerging therapeutic approaches that can help reduce LPS-mediated endotoxemia and TMAO, such as restoring intestinal eubiosis, normalizing intestinal barrier function, and counterbalancing the effects of LPS and TMAO.
2023
Inglese
Papa, A., Santini, P., De Lucia, S. S., Maresca, R., Porfidia, A., Pignatelli, P., Gasbarrini, A., Violi, F., Pola, R., Gut dysbiosis-related thrombosis in inflammatory bowel disease: Potential disease mechanisms and emerging therapeutic strategies, <<THROMBOSIS RESEARCH>>, 2023; 232 (232): 77-88. [doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2023.11.005] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/275574]
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