Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by a persistent low-grade inflammation that leads to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Several factors are implicated in this pathogenetic pathway, such as innate and adaptive immunity, gut microbiota, environment, and xenobiotics. At the gut mucosa level, a complex interplay between the immune system and gut microbiota occurs; a disequilibrium between these two factors leads to an alteration in the gut permeability, called ‘leaky gut’. Subsequently, an activation of several inflammatory pathways and an alteration of gut microbiota composition with a proliferation of pro-inflammatory bacteria, known as ‘pathobionts’, take place, leading to a further increase in inflammation. This narrative review provides an overview on the principal Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), focusing on their recognition mechanisms, signaling pathways, and contributions to immune responses. We also report the genetic polymorphisms of TLRs and dysregulation of NLR signaling pathways that can influence immune regulation and contribute to the development and progression of inflammatory disease and cancer.

Giambra, V., Pagliari, D., Rio, P., Totti, B., Di Nunzio, C., Bosi, A., Giaroni, C., Gasbarrini, A., Gambassi, G., Cianci, R., Gut Microbiota, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Cancer: The Role of Guardians of Innate Immunity, <<CELLS>>, 2023; 12 (22): 1-19. [doi:10.3390/cells12222654] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/270500]

Gut Microbiota, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Cancer: The Role of Guardians of Innate Immunity

Rio, Pierluigi;Gasbarrini, Antonio;Gambassi, Giovanni;Cianci, Rossella
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by a persistent low-grade inflammation that leads to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Several factors are implicated in this pathogenetic pathway, such as innate and adaptive immunity, gut microbiota, environment, and xenobiotics. At the gut mucosa level, a complex interplay between the immune system and gut microbiota occurs; a disequilibrium between these two factors leads to an alteration in the gut permeability, called ‘leaky gut’. Subsequently, an activation of several inflammatory pathways and an alteration of gut microbiota composition with a proliferation of pro-inflammatory bacteria, known as ‘pathobionts’, take place, leading to a further increase in inflammation. This narrative review provides an overview on the principal Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), focusing on their recognition mechanisms, signaling pathways, and contributions to immune responses. We also report the genetic polymorphisms of TLRs and dysregulation of NLR signaling pathways that can influence immune regulation and contribute to the development and progression of inflammatory disease and cancer.
2023
Inglese
Giambra, V., Pagliari, D., Rio, P., Totti, B., Di Nunzio, C., Bosi, A., Giaroni, C., Gasbarrini, A., Gambassi, G., Cianci, R., Gut Microbiota, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Cancer: The Role of Guardians of Innate Immunity, <<CELLS>>, 2023; 12 (22): 1-19. [doi:10.3390/cells12222654] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/270500]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
cells-12-02654.pdf

accesso aperto

Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 843.78 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
843.78 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/270500
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact