Dementia is a major cause of poor quality of life, disability, and mortality in old age. According to the geroscience paradigm, the mechanisms that drive the aging process are also involved in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, including dementia. The dissection of such mechanisms is therefore instrumental in providing biological targets for interventions and new sources for biomarkers. Within the geroscience paradigm, several biomarkers have been discovered that can be measured in blood and that allow early identification of individuals at risk of cognitive impairment. Examples of such markers include inflammatory biomolecules, markers of neuroaxonal damage, extracellular vesicles, and DNA methylation. Furthermore, gait speed, measured at a usual and fast pace and as part of a dual task, has been shown to detect individuals at risk of future dementia. Here, we provide an overview of available biomarkers that may be used to gauge the risk of cognitive impairment in apparently healthy older adults. Further research should establish which combination of biomarkers possesses the highest predictive accuracy toward incident dementia. The implementation of currently available markers may allow the identification of a large share of at-risk individuals in whom preventive interventions should be implemented to maintain or increase cognitive reserves, thereby reducing the risk of progression to dementia.

Kerminen, H., Marzetti, E., D'Angelo, E., Biological and Physical Performance Markers for Early Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults, <<JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE>>, 2024; 13 (3): 1-18. [doi:10.3390/jcm13030806] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/261494]

Biological and Physical Performance Markers for Early Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

Marzetti, Emanuele;D'Angelo, Emanuela
2024

Abstract

Dementia is a major cause of poor quality of life, disability, and mortality in old age. According to the geroscience paradigm, the mechanisms that drive the aging process are also involved in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, including dementia. The dissection of such mechanisms is therefore instrumental in providing biological targets for interventions and new sources for biomarkers. Within the geroscience paradigm, several biomarkers have been discovered that can be measured in blood and that allow early identification of individuals at risk of cognitive impairment. Examples of such markers include inflammatory biomolecules, markers of neuroaxonal damage, extracellular vesicles, and DNA methylation. Furthermore, gait speed, measured at a usual and fast pace and as part of a dual task, has been shown to detect individuals at risk of future dementia. Here, we provide an overview of available biomarkers that may be used to gauge the risk of cognitive impairment in apparently healthy older adults. Further research should establish which combination of biomarkers possesses the highest predictive accuracy toward incident dementia. The implementation of currently available markers may allow the identification of a large share of at-risk individuals in whom preventive interventions should be implemented to maintain or increase cognitive reserves, thereby reducing the risk of progression to dementia.
2024
Inglese
Kerminen, H., Marzetti, E., D'Angelo, E., Biological and Physical Performance Markers for Early Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults, <<JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE>>, 2024; 13 (3): 1-18. [doi:10.3390/jcm13030806] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/261494]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/261494
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