Extensive research provides evidence that neuroinflammation underlies numerous brain disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators determine synaptic and cognitive dysfunction occurring in neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) are far from being fully understood. Here we investigated the role of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), and the molecular cascade downstream the activation of its receptor, to the synaptic dysfunction occurring in the mouse model of multiple Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) reactivations within the brain. These mice are characterized by neuroinflammation and memory deficits associated with a progressive accumulation of neurodegenerative hallmarks (e.g., amyloid-beta protein and tau hyperphosphorylation). Here we show that mice undergone two HSV-1 reactivations in the brain exhibited increased levels of IL-1 beta along with significant alterations of: (1) cognitive performances; (2) hippocampal long-term potentiation; (3) expression synaptic-related genes and pre- and post-synaptic proteins; (4) dendritic spine density and morphology. These effects correlated with activation of the epigenetic repressor MeCP2 that, in association with HDAC4, affected the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes. Specifically, in response to HSV-1 infection, HDAC4 accumulated in the nucleus and promoted MeCP2 SUMOylation that is a post-translational modification critically affecting the repressive activity of MeCP2. The blockade of IL-1 receptors by the specific antagonist Anakinra prevented the MeCP2 increase and the consequent downregulation of gene expression along with rescuing structural and functional indices of neurodegeneration. Collectively, our findings provide novel mechanistic evidence on the role played by HSV-1-activated IL-1 beta signaling pathways in synaptic deficits leading to cognitive impairment.

Li Puma, D. D., Colussi, C., Bandiera, B., Puliatti, G., Rinaudo, M., Cocco, S., Paciello, F., Re, A., Ripoli, C., De Chiara, G., Bertozzi, A., Palamara, A. T., Piacentini, R., Grassi, C., Interleukin 1β triggers synaptic and memory deficits in Herpes simplex virus type-1-infected mice by downregulating the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes via the epigenetic MeCP2/HDAC4 complex, <<CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES>>, 2023; 80 (6): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.1007/s00018-023-04817-5] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/258602]

Interleukin 1β triggers synaptic and memory deficits in Herpes simplex virus type-1-infected mice by downregulating the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes via the epigenetic MeCP2/HDAC4 complex

Li Puma, Domenica Donatella
Co-primo
;
Colussi, Claudia
Co-primo
;
Bandiera, Bruno;Puliatti, Giulia;Rinaudo, Marco;Paciello, Fabiola;Ripoli, Cristian;Bertozzi, Alessia;Piacentini, Roberto
;
Grassi, Claudio
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Extensive research provides evidence that neuroinflammation underlies numerous brain disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators determine synaptic and cognitive dysfunction occurring in neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) are far from being fully understood. Here we investigated the role of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), and the molecular cascade downstream the activation of its receptor, to the synaptic dysfunction occurring in the mouse model of multiple Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) reactivations within the brain. These mice are characterized by neuroinflammation and memory deficits associated with a progressive accumulation of neurodegenerative hallmarks (e.g., amyloid-beta protein and tau hyperphosphorylation). Here we show that mice undergone two HSV-1 reactivations in the brain exhibited increased levels of IL-1 beta along with significant alterations of: (1) cognitive performances; (2) hippocampal long-term potentiation; (3) expression synaptic-related genes and pre- and post-synaptic proteins; (4) dendritic spine density and morphology. These effects correlated with activation of the epigenetic repressor MeCP2 that, in association with HDAC4, affected the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes. Specifically, in response to HSV-1 infection, HDAC4 accumulated in the nucleus and promoted MeCP2 SUMOylation that is a post-translational modification critically affecting the repressive activity of MeCP2. The blockade of IL-1 receptors by the specific antagonist Anakinra prevented the MeCP2 increase and the consequent downregulation of gene expression along with rescuing structural and functional indices of neurodegeneration. Collectively, our findings provide novel mechanistic evidence on the role played by HSV-1-activated IL-1 beta signaling pathways in synaptic deficits leading to cognitive impairment.
2023
Inglese
Li Puma, D. D., Colussi, C., Bandiera, B., Puliatti, G., Rinaudo, M., Cocco, S., Paciello, F., Re, A., Ripoli, C., De Chiara, G., Bertozzi, A., Palamara, A. T., Piacentini, R., Grassi, C., Interleukin 1β triggers synaptic and memory deficits in Herpes simplex virus type-1-infected mice by downregulating the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes via the epigenetic MeCP2/HDAC4 complex, <<CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES>>, 2023; 80 (6): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.1007/s00018-023-04817-5] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/258602]
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