Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that can be complicated by episodes of decompensation such as variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and jaundice, with subsequent increased mortality. Infections are also among the most common complications in cirrhotic patients, mostly due to a defect in immunosurveillance. Among them, one of the most frequent is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), defined as the primary infection of ascitic fluid without other abdominal foci. SBP is mainly induced by Gram-negative bacteria living in the intestinal tract, and translocating through the intestinal barrier, which in cirrhotic patients is defective and more permeable. Moreover, in cirrhotic patients, the intestinal microbiota shows an altered composition, poor in beneficial elements and enriched in potentially pathogenic ones. This condition further promotes the development of leaky gut and increases the risk of SBP. The first-line treatment of SBP is antibiotic therapy; however, the antibiotics used have a broad spectrum of action and may adversely affect the composition of the gut microbiota, worsening dysbiosis. For this reason, the future goal is to use new therapeutic agents that act primarily on the gut microbiota, selectively modulating it, or on the intestinal barrier, reducing its permeability. In this review, we aim to describe the reciprocal relationship between gut microbiota and SBP, focusing on pathogenetic aspects but also on new future therapies.

Maccauro, V., Airola, C., Santopaolo, F., Gasbarrini, A., Ponziani, F. R., Pompili, M., Gut Microbiota and Infectious Complications in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease: Focus on Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis, <<LIFE>>, N/A; 13 (4): 991-N/A. [doi:10.3390/life13040991] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/240222]

Gut Microbiota and Infectious Complications in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease: Focus on Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

Maccauro, Valeria;Airola, Carlo;Santopaolo, Francesco;Gasbarrini, Antonio;Ponziani, Francesca Romana;Pompili, Maurizio
2023

Abstract

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that can be complicated by episodes of decompensation such as variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and jaundice, with subsequent increased mortality. Infections are also among the most common complications in cirrhotic patients, mostly due to a defect in immunosurveillance. Among them, one of the most frequent is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), defined as the primary infection of ascitic fluid without other abdominal foci. SBP is mainly induced by Gram-negative bacteria living in the intestinal tract, and translocating through the intestinal barrier, which in cirrhotic patients is defective and more permeable. Moreover, in cirrhotic patients, the intestinal microbiota shows an altered composition, poor in beneficial elements and enriched in potentially pathogenic ones. This condition further promotes the development of leaky gut and increases the risk of SBP. The first-line treatment of SBP is antibiotic therapy; however, the antibiotics used have a broad spectrum of action and may adversely affect the composition of the gut microbiota, worsening dysbiosis. For this reason, the future goal is to use new therapeutic agents that act primarily on the gut microbiota, selectively modulating it, or on the intestinal barrier, reducing its permeability. In this review, we aim to describe the reciprocal relationship between gut microbiota and SBP, focusing on pathogenetic aspects but also on new future therapies.
2023
Inglese
Maccauro, V., Airola, C., Santopaolo, F., Gasbarrini, A., Ponziani, F. R., Pompili, M., Gut Microbiota and Infectious Complications in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease: Focus on Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis, <<LIFE>>, N/A; 13 (4): 991-N/A. [doi:10.3390/life13040991] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/240222]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/240222
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