Huge differences exist between cow yields and body sizes during their first and second lactations. The tran-sition period is the most critical and investigated phase of the lactation cycle. We compared metabolic and endocrine responses between cows at different parities during the transition period and early lactation. Eight Holstein dairy cows were monitored at their first and second calving during which they were reared under the same conditions. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) were regularly measured, and energy balance, efficiency, and lactation curves were calculated. Blood samples were collected on scheduled days from -21 d relative to calving (DRC) to 120 DRC for the assessment of metabolic and hormonal profiles (biomarkers of metabolism, mineral status, inflamma-tion, and liver function). Large variations in the period in question for almost all variables investigated were observed. Compared with their first lactation, cows during their second lactation had higher DMI (+15%) and BW (+13%), their milk yield was greater (+26%), lactation peak was higher and earlier (36.6 kg/d at 48.8 DRC vs. 45.0 kg/d at 62.9 DRC), but persistency was reduced. Milk fat, protein, and lactose contents were higher during the first lactation and coagulation prop-erties were better (higher titratable acidity, faster and firmer curd formation). Postpartum negative energy balance was more severe the during the second lacta-tion (1.4-fold at 7 DRC) and plasma glucose was lower. Circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were lower in second-calving cows during the transi-tion period. At the same time, markers of body reserve mobilization (beta-hydroxybutyrate and urea) increased. Moreover, albumin, cholesterol, and gamma-glutamyl trans-ferase were higher during second lactation, whereas bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were lower. The inflammatory response after calving was not different, as suggested by the similar haptoglobin concentrations and only transient differences in ceruloplasmin. Blood growth hormone did not differ during the transition period but was lower during the second lactation at 90 DRC, whereas circulating glucagon was higher. These results agree with the differences in milk yield and confirmed the hypothesis of a different metabolic and hormonal status between the first and second lactation partly related to different degrees of maturity.

Cattaneo, L., Piccioli Cappelli, F., Minuti, A., Trevisi, E., Metabolic and physiological adaptations to first and second lactation in Holstein dairy cows, <<JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE>>, 2023; 106 (5): 3559-3575. [doi:10.3168/jds.2022-22684] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/239935]

Metabolic and physiological adaptations to first and second lactation in Holstein dairy cows

Cattaneo, Luca;Piccioli Cappelli, Fiorenzo;Minuti, Andrea;Trevisi, Erminio
2023

Abstract

Huge differences exist between cow yields and body sizes during their first and second lactations. The tran-sition period is the most critical and investigated phase of the lactation cycle. We compared metabolic and endocrine responses between cows at different parities during the transition period and early lactation. Eight Holstein dairy cows were monitored at their first and second calving during which they were reared under the same conditions. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) were regularly measured, and energy balance, efficiency, and lactation curves were calculated. Blood samples were collected on scheduled days from -21 d relative to calving (DRC) to 120 DRC for the assessment of metabolic and hormonal profiles (biomarkers of metabolism, mineral status, inflamma-tion, and liver function). Large variations in the period in question for almost all variables investigated were observed. Compared with their first lactation, cows during their second lactation had higher DMI (+15%) and BW (+13%), their milk yield was greater (+26%), lactation peak was higher and earlier (36.6 kg/d at 48.8 DRC vs. 45.0 kg/d at 62.9 DRC), but persistency was reduced. Milk fat, protein, and lactose contents were higher during the first lactation and coagulation prop-erties were better (higher titratable acidity, faster and firmer curd formation). Postpartum negative energy balance was more severe the during the second lacta-tion (1.4-fold at 7 DRC) and plasma glucose was lower. Circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were lower in second-calving cows during the transi-tion period. At the same time, markers of body reserve mobilization (beta-hydroxybutyrate and urea) increased. Moreover, albumin, cholesterol, and gamma-glutamyl trans-ferase were higher during second lactation, whereas bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were lower. The inflammatory response after calving was not different, as suggested by the similar haptoglobin concentrations and only transient differences in ceruloplasmin. Blood growth hormone did not differ during the transition period but was lower during the second lactation at 90 DRC, whereas circulating glucagon was higher. These results agree with the differences in milk yield and confirmed the hypothesis of a different metabolic and hormonal status between the first and second lactation partly related to different degrees of maturity.
2023
Inglese
Cattaneo, L., Piccioli Cappelli, F., Minuti, A., Trevisi, E., Metabolic and physiological adaptations to first and second lactation in Holstein dairy cows, <<JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE>>, 2023; 106 (5): 3559-3575. [doi:10.3168/jds.2022-22684] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/239935]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/239935
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