Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, and pharmacotherapy of most of them is suboptimal. Thus, there is a clear unmet clinical need to develop new pharmacological strategies with greater efficacy and better safety profiles. In this review, we summarize the most relevant advances in cardiovascular pharmacology in 2022, including the approval of first-in-class drugs that open new avenues for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (mavacamten), type 2 diabetes mellitus (tirzepatide), and heart failure (HF) independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors). We also dealt with fixed dose combination therapies repurposing different formulations of 'old' drugs with well-known efficacy and safety for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated HF (acetazolamide plus loop diuretics), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (moderate-dose statin plus ezetimibe), Marfan syndrome (angiotensin receptor blockers plus beta-blockers), and secondary cardiovascular prevention (i.e. low-dose aspirin, ramipril, and atorvastatin), thereby filling existing gaps in knowledge and opening new avenues for the treatment of CVD. Clinical trials confirming the role of dapagliflozin in patients with HF and mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction, long-term evolocumab to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, vitamin K antagonists for stroke prevention in patients with rheumatic heart disease-associated atrial fibrillation, antibiotic prophylaxis in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis before invasive dental procedures, and vutrisiran for the treatment of hereditary transthyretin-related amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were also reviewed. Finally, we briefly discuss recent clinical trials suggesting that FXIa inhibitors may have the potential to uncouple thrombosis from haemostasis and attenuate/prevent thromboembolic events with minimal disruption of haemostasis.

Tamargo, J., Agewall, S., Borghi, C., Ceconi, C., Cerbai, E., Dan, G. A., Ferdinandy, P., Grove, E. L., Rocca, B., Sulzgruber, P., Semb, A. G., Sossalla, S., Niessner, A., Kaski, J. C., Dobrev, D., New pharmacological agents and novel cardiovascular pharmacotherapy strategies in 2022, <<EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL. CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOTHERAPY>>, 2023; 9 (4): 353-370. [doi:10.1093/ehjcvp/pvad034] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/238776]

New pharmacological agents and novel cardiovascular pharmacotherapy strategies in 2022

Rocca, Bianca
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2023

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, and pharmacotherapy of most of them is suboptimal. Thus, there is a clear unmet clinical need to develop new pharmacological strategies with greater efficacy and better safety profiles. In this review, we summarize the most relevant advances in cardiovascular pharmacology in 2022, including the approval of first-in-class drugs that open new avenues for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (mavacamten), type 2 diabetes mellitus (tirzepatide), and heart failure (HF) independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors). We also dealt with fixed dose combination therapies repurposing different formulations of 'old' drugs with well-known efficacy and safety for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated HF (acetazolamide plus loop diuretics), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (moderate-dose statin plus ezetimibe), Marfan syndrome (angiotensin receptor blockers plus beta-blockers), and secondary cardiovascular prevention (i.e. low-dose aspirin, ramipril, and atorvastatin), thereby filling existing gaps in knowledge and opening new avenues for the treatment of CVD. Clinical trials confirming the role of dapagliflozin in patients with HF and mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction, long-term evolocumab to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, vitamin K antagonists for stroke prevention in patients with rheumatic heart disease-associated atrial fibrillation, antibiotic prophylaxis in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis before invasive dental procedures, and vutrisiran for the treatment of hereditary transthyretin-related amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were also reviewed. Finally, we briefly discuss recent clinical trials suggesting that FXIa inhibitors may have the potential to uncouple thrombosis from haemostasis and attenuate/prevent thromboembolic events with minimal disruption of haemostasis.
2023
Inglese
Tamargo, J., Agewall, S., Borghi, C., Ceconi, C., Cerbai, E., Dan, G. A., Ferdinandy, P., Grove, E. L., Rocca, B., Sulzgruber, P., Semb, A. G., Sossalla, S., Niessner, A., Kaski, J. C., Dobrev, D., New pharmacological agents and novel cardiovascular pharmacotherapy strategies in 2022, <<EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL. CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOTHERAPY>>, 2023; 9 (4): 353-370. [doi:10.1093/ehjcvp/pvad034] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/238776]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/238776
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