Simple Summary Molecular aberrations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway are often observed in breast cancer and represent a key regulator of many cellular processes, promoting tumor cell growth and survival. The first clinical trials leading to the development of pan-PI3K inhibitors showed certain preclinical activity; nevertheless, the toxicity profile limited further analysis of this drugs' class. To improve the antitumor effect and therapeutic index, additional clinical trials have been performed to develop the PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors and new schedule combinations with a good toxicity profile. However, further efforts are needed to discover other potentially actionable genetic alterations that remain a challenge to reach the goal of personalized and precision medicine. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in the female population and despite significant efforts made in diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies adopted for advanced breast cancer, the disease still remains incurable. Therefore, development of more effective systemic treatments constitutes a crucial need. Recently, several clinical trials were performed to find innovative predictive biomarkers and to improve the outcome of metastatic breast cancer through innovative therapeutic algorithms. In the pathogenesis of breast cancer, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis is a key regulator of cell proliferation, growth, survival, metabolism, and motility, making it an interest and therapeutic target. Nevertheless, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR cascade includes a complex network of biological events, needing more sophisticated approaches for their use in cancer treatment. In this review, we described the rationale for targeting the PI3K pathway, the development of PI3K inhibitors and the future treatment directions of different breast cancer subtypes in the metastatic setting.

Fuso, P., Muratore, M., D'Angelo, T., Paris, I., Carbognin, L., Tiberi, G., Pavese, F., Duranti, S., Orlandi, A., Tortora, G., Scambia, G., Fabi, A., PI3K Inhibitors in Advanced Breast Cancer: The Past, The Present, New Challenges and Future Perspectives, <<CANCERS>>, 2022; 14 (9): 1-21. [doi:10.3390/cancers14092161] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232637]

PI3K Inhibitors in Advanced Breast Cancer: The Past, The Present, New Challenges and Future Perspectives

Fuso, Paola;Paris, Ida;Orlandi, Armando;Tortora, Giampaolo;Scambia, Giovanni;
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Molecular aberrations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway are often observed in breast cancer and represent a key regulator of many cellular processes, promoting tumor cell growth and survival. The first clinical trials leading to the development of pan-PI3K inhibitors showed certain preclinical activity; nevertheless, the toxicity profile limited further analysis of this drugs' class. To improve the antitumor effect and therapeutic index, additional clinical trials have been performed to develop the PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors and new schedule combinations with a good toxicity profile. However, further efforts are needed to discover other potentially actionable genetic alterations that remain a challenge to reach the goal of personalized and precision medicine. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in the female population and despite significant efforts made in diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies adopted for advanced breast cancer, the disease still remains incurable. Therefore, development of more effective systemic treatments constitutes a crucial need. Recently, several clinical trials were performed to find innovative predictive biomarkers and to improve the outcome of metastatic breast cancer through innovative therapeutic algorithms. In the pathogenesis of breast cancer, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis is a key regulator of cell proliferation, growth, survival, metabolism, and motility, making it an interest and therapeutic target. Nevertheless, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR cascade includes a complex network of biological events, needing more sophisticated approaches for their use in cancer treatment. In this review, we described the rationale for targeting the PI3K pathway, the development of PI3K inhibitors and the future treatment directions of different breast cancer subtypes in the metastatic setting.
2022
Inglese
Fuso, P., Muratore, M., D'Angelo, T., Paris, I., Carbognin, L., Tiberi, G., Pavese, F., Duranti, S., Orlandi, A., Tortora, G., Scambia, G., Fabi, A., PI3K Inhibitors in Advanced Breast Cancer: The Past, The Present, New Challenges and Future Perspectives, <<CANCERS>>, 2022; 14 (9): 1-21. [doi:10.3390/cancers14092161] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232637]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232637
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