1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS), first discovered in Europe in 2012 as unknown racemic mixture of its three stereoisomers: ortho, meta and para. Each of these has structural similarities with the analgesic tramadol and the dissociative anesthetic phencyclidine. In light of these structural analogies, and based on the fact that both tramadol and phencyclidine are substances that cause toxic effects in humans, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic profile of these molecules, and to compare them with those caused by tramadol and phencyclidine. In vitro studies demonstrated that tramadol, ortho, meta and para were inactive at mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. Systemic administration of the three stereoisomers impairs sensorimotor responses, modulates spontaneous motor activity, induces modest analgesia, and alters thermoregulation and cardiorespiratory responses in the mouse in some cases, with a similar profile to that of tramadol and phencyclidine. Naloxone partially prevents only the visual sensorimotor impairments caused by three stereoisomers, without preventing other effects. The present data show that 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene derivatives cause pharmaco-toxicological effects by activating both opioid and non-opioid mechanisms and suggest that their use could potentially lead to abuse and bodily harm.

Bilel, S., Tirri, M., Arfè, R., Sturaro, C., Fantinati, A., Cristofori, V., Bernardi, T., Boccuto, F., Cavallo, M., Cavalli, A., De Giorgio, F., Calò, G., Marti, M., In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmaco-Toxicological Characterization of 1-Cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene Derivatives in Mice: Comparison with Tramadol and PCP, <<INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES>>, 2021; 2021 (2021): 1-31. [doi:10.3390/ijms22147659] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232053]

In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmaco-Toxicological Characterization of 1-Cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene Derivatives in Mice: Comparison with Tramadol and PCP

De Giorgio, Fabio;
2021

Abstract

1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS), first discovered in Europe in 2012 as unknown racemic mixture of its three stereoisomers: ortho, meta and para. Each of these has structural similarities with the analgesic tramadol and the dissociative anesthetic phencyclidine. In light of these structural analogies, and based on the fact that both tramadol and phencyclidine are substances that cause toxic effects in humans, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic profile of these molecules, and to compare them with those caused by tramadol and phencyclidine. In vitro studies demonstrated that tramadol, ortho, meta and para were inactive at mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. Systemic administration of the three stereoisomers impairs sensorimotor responses, modulates spontaneous motor activity, induces modest analgesia, and alters thermoregulation and cardiorespiratory responses in the mouse in some cases, with a similar profile to that of tramadol and phencyclidine. Naloxone partially prevents only the visual sensorimotor impairments caused by three stereoisomers, without preventing other effects. The present data show that 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene derivatives cause pharmaco-toxicological effects by activating both opioid and non-opioid mechanisms and suggest that their use could potentially lead to abuse and bodily harm.
2021
Inglese
Bilel, S., Tirri, M., Arfè, R., Sturaro, C., Fantinati, A., Cristofori, V., Bernardi, T., Boccuto, F., Cavallo, M., Cavalli, A., De Giorgio, F., Calò, G., Marti, M., In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmaco-Toxicological Characterization of 1-Cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene Derivatives in Mice: Comparison with Tramadol and PCP, <<INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES>>, 2021; 2021 (2021): 1-31. [doi:10.3390/ijms22147659] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232053]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/232053
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