Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health challenge. Due to the high prevalence in low-income countries, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus infections remain the main risk factors for HCC occurrence, despite the increasing frequencies of non-viral etiologies. In addition, hepatitis D virus coinfection increases the oncogenic risk in patients with HBV infection. The molecular processes underlying HCC development are complex and various, either independent from liver disease etiology or etiology-related. The reciprocal interlinkage among non-viral and viral risk factors, the damaged cellular microenvironment, the dysregulation of the immune system and the alteration of gut-liver-axis are known to participate in liver cancer induction and progression. Oncogenic mechanisms and pathways change throughout the natural history of viral hepatitis with the worsening of liver fibrosis. The high risk of cancer incidence in chronic viral hepatitis infected patients compared to other liver disease etiologies makes it necessary to implement a proper surveillance, both through clinical-biochemical scores and periodic ultrasound assessment. This review aims to outline viral and microenvironmental factors contributing to HCC occurrence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to point out the importance of surveillance programs recommended by international guidelines to promote early diagnosis of HCC. (c) The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Stella, L., Santopaolo, F., Gasbarrini, A., Pompili, M., Ponziani, F. R., Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: From molecular pathways to the role of clinical surveillance and antiviral treatment, <<WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY>>, N/A; 28 (21): 2251-2281. [doi:10.3748/wjg.v28.i21.2251] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/230839]

Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: From molecular pathways to the role of clinical surveillance and antiviral treatment

Stella, Leonardo;Santopaolo, Francesco;Gasbarrini, Antonio;Pompili, Maurizio;Ponziani, Francesca Romana
2022

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health challenge. Due to the high prevalence in low-income countries, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus infections remain the main risk factors for HCC occurrence, despite the increasing frequencies of non-viral etiologies. In addition, hepatitis D virus coinfection increases the oncogenic risk in patients with HBV infection. The molecular processes underlying HCC development are complex and various, either independent from liver disease etiology or etiology-related. The reciprocal interlinkage among non-viral and viral risk factors, the damaged cellular microenvironment, the dysregulation of the immune system and the alteration of gut-liver-axis are known to participate in liver cancer induction and progression. Oncogenic mechanisms and pathways change throughout the natural history of viral hepatitis with the worsening of liver fibrosis. The high risk of cancer incidence in chronic viral hepatitis infected patients compared to other liver disease etiologies makes it necessary to implement a proper surveillance, both through clinical-biochemical scores and periodic ultrasound assessment. This review aims to outline viral and microenvironmental factors contributing to HCC occurrence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to point out the importance of surveillance programs recommended by international guidelines to promote early diagnosis of HCC. (c) The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
2022
Inglese
Stella, L., Santopaolo, F., Gasbarrini, A., Pompili, M., Ponziani, F. R., Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: From molecular pathways to the role of clinical surveillance and antiviral treatment, <<WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY>>, N/A; 28 (21): 2251-2281. [doi:10.3748/wjg.v28.i21.2251] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/230839]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/230839
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