Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in the T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) to cure high-risk leukemias. NK cells belong to the expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). At variance with NK cells, the other ILC populations (ILC1/2/3) are non-cytolytic, while they secrete different patterns of cytokines. ILCs provide host defenses against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, drive lymphoid organogenesis, and contribute to tissue remodeling. In haplo-HSCT patients, the extensive T-cell depletion is required to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but increases risks of developing a wide range of life-threatening infections. However, these patients may rely on innate defenses that are reconstituted more rapidly than the adaptive ones. In this context, ILCs may represent important players in the early phases following transplantation. They may contribute to tissue homeostasis/remodeling and lymphoid tissue reconstitution. While the reconstitution of NK cell repertoire and its role in haplo-HSCT have been largely investigated, little information is available on ILCs. Of note, CD34+ cells isolated from different sources of HSC may differentiate in vitro toward various ILC subsets. Moreover, cytokines released from leukemia blasts (e.g., IL-1β) may alter the proportions of NK cells and ILC3, suggesting the possibility that leukemia may skew the ILC repertoire. Further studies are required to define the timing of ILC development and their potential protective role after HSCT.

Vacca, P., Montaldo, E., Croxatto, D., Moretta, F., Bertaina, A., Vitale, C., Locatelli, F., Mingari, M. C., Moretta, L., NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, <<FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY>>, 2016; 7 (MAY): 1-6. [doi:10.3389/fimmu.2016.00188] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/228109]

NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Locatelli, Franco
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2016

Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in the T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) to cure high-risk leukemias. NK cells belong to the expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). At variance with NK cells, the other ILC populations (ILC1/2/3) are non-cytolytic, while they secrete different patterns of cytokines. ILCs provide host defenses against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, drive lymphoid organogenesis, and contribute to tissue remodeling. In haplo-HSCT patients, the extensive T-cell depletion is required to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but increases risks of developing a wide range of life-threatening infections. However, these patients may rely on innate defenses that are reconstituted more rapidly than the adaptive ones. In this context, ILCs may represent important players in the early phases following transplantation. They may contribute to tissue homeostasis/remodeling and lymphoid tissue reconstitution. While the reconstitution of NK cell repertoire and its role in haplo-HSCT have been largely investigated, little information is available on ILCs. Of note, CD34+ cells isolated from different sources of HSC may differentiate in vitro toward various ILC subsets. Moreover, cytokines released from leukemia blasts (e.g., IL-1β) may alter the proportions of NK cells and ILC3, suggesting the possibility that leukemia may skew the ILC repertoire. Further studies are required to define the timing of ILC development and their potential protective role after HSCT.
2016
Inglese
Vacca, P., Montaldo, E., Croxatto, D., Moretta, F., Bertaina, A., Vitale, C., Locatelli, F., Mingari, M. C., Moretta, L., NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, <<FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY>>, 2016; 7 (MAY): 1-6. [doi:10.3389/fimmu.2016.00188] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/228109]
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