Integrins represent a gateway of entry for many viruses and the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif is the smallest sequence necessary for proteins to bind integrins. All Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages own an RGD motif (aa 403-405) in their receptor binding domain (RBD). We recently showed that SARS-CoV-2 gains access into primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-mECs) lacking Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression through this conserved RGD motif. Following its entry, SARS-CoV-2 remodels cell phenotype and promotes angiogenesis in the absence of productive viral replication. Here, we highlight the αvβ3 integrin as the main molecule responsible for SARS-CoV-2 infection of HL-mECs via a clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Indeed, pretreatment of virus with αvβ3 integrin or pretreatment of cells with a monoclonal antibody against αvβ3 integrin was found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into HL-mECs. Surprisingly, the anti-Spike antibodies evoked by vaccination were neither able to impair Spike/integrin interaction nor to prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry into HL-mECs. Our data highlight the RGD motif in the Spike protein as a functional constraint aimed to maintain the interaction of the viral envelope with integrins. At the same time, our evidences call for the need of intervention strategies aimed to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 integrin-mediated infection of ACE2-negative cells in the vaccine era.

Bugatti, A., Filippini, F., Bardelli, M., Zani, A., Chiodelli, P., Messali, S., Caruso, A., Caccuri, F., SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human ACE2-Negative Endothelial Cells through an αvβ3 Integrin-Mediated Endocytosis Even in the Presence of Vaccine-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies, <<VIRUSES>>, 2022; 14 (4): 705-N/A. [doi:10.3390/v14040705] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227689]

SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human ACE2-Negative Endothelial Cells through an αvβ3 Integrin-Mediated Endocytosis Even in the Presence of Vaccine-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies

Chiodelli, Paola
Methodology
;
2022

Abstract

Integrins represent a gateway of entry for many viruses and the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif is the smallest sequence necessary for proteins to bind integrins. All Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages own an RGD motif (aa 403-405) in their receptor binding domain (RBD). We recently showed that SARS-CoV-2 gains access into primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-mECs) lacking Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression through this conserved RGD motif. Following its entry, SARS-CoV-2 remodels cell phenotype and promotes angiogenesis in the absence of productive viral replication. Here, we highlight the αvβ3 integrin as the main molecule responsible for SARS-CoV-2 infection of HL-mECs via a clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Indeed, pretreatment of virus with αvβ3 integrin or pretreatment of cells with a monoclonal antibody against αvβ3 integrin was found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into HL-mECs. Surprisingly, the anti-Spike antibodies evoked by vaccination were neither able to impair Spike/integrin interaction nor to prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry into HL-mECs. Our data highlight the RGD motif in the Spike protein as a functional constraint aimed to maintain the interaction of the viral envelope with integrins. At the same time, our evidences call for the need of intervention strategies aimed to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 integrin-mediated infection of ACE2-negative cells in the vaccine era.
2022
Inglese
Bugatti, A., Filippini, F., Bardelli, M., Zani, A., Chiodelli, P., Messali, S., Caruso, A., Caccuri, F., SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human ACE2-Negative Endothelial Cells through an αvβ3 Integrin-Mediated Endocytosis Even in the Presence of Vaccine-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies, <<VIRUSES>>, 2022; 14 (4): 705-N/A. [doi:10.3390/v14040705] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227689]
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