The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has served as the founding member of the large family of growth factor receptors harboring intrinsic tyrosine kinase function. High abundance of EGFR and large internal deletions are frequently observed in brain tumors, whereas point mutations and small insertions within the kinase domain are common in lung cancer. For these reasons EGFR and its preferred heterodimer partner, HER2/ERBB2, became popular targets of anti‐cancer therapies. Nevertheless, EGFR research keeps revealing unexpected observations, which are re-viewed herein. Once activated by a ligand, EGFR initiates a time‐dependent series of molecular switches comprising downregulation of a large cohort of microRNAs, up‐regulation of newly syn-thesized mRNAs, and covalent protein modifications, collectively controlling phenotype‐determin-ing genes. In addition to microRNAs, long non‐coding RNAs and circular RNAs play critical roles in EGFR signaling. Along with driver mutations, EGFR drives metastasis in many ways. Paracrine loops comprising tumor and stromal cells enable EGFR to fuel invasion across tissue barriers, survival of clusters of circulating tumor cells, as well as colonization of distant organs. We conclude by listing all clinically approved anti‐cancer drugs targeting either EGFR or HER2. Because emergence of drug resistance is nearly inevitable, we discuss the major evasion mechanisms.

Uribe, M. L., Marrocco, I., Yarden, Y., Egfr in cancer: Signaling mechanisms, drugs and acquired resistance, <<CANCERS>>, 2021; 13 (11): 2748-2748. [doi:10.3390/cancers13112748] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227212]

Egfr in cancer: Signaling mechanisms, drugs and acquired resistance

Marrocco, Ilaria
Secondo
;
2021

Abstract

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has served as the founding member of the large family of growth factor receptors harboring intrinsic tyrosine kinase function. High abundance of EGFR and large internal deletions are frequently observed in brain tumors, whereas point mutations and small insertions within the kinase domain are common in lung cancer. For these reasons EGFR and its preferred heterodimer partner, HER2/ERBB2, became popular targets of anti‐cancer therapies. Nevertheless, EGFR research keeps revealing unexpected observations, which are re-viewed herein. Once activated by a ligand, EGFR initiates a time‐dependent series of molecular switches comprising downregulation of a large cohort of microRNAs, up‐regulation of newly syn-thesized mRNAs, and covalent protein modifications, collectively controlling phenotype‐determin-ing genes. In addition to microRNAs, long non‐coding RNAs and circular RNAs play critical roles in EGFR signaling. Along with driver mutations, EGFR drives metastasis in many ways. Paracrine loops comprising tumor and stromal cells enable EGFR to fuel invasion across tissue barriers, survival of clusters of circulating tumor cells, as well as colonization of distant organs. We conclude by listing all clinically approved anti‐cancer drugs targeting either EGFR or HER2. Because emergence of drug resistance is nearly inevitable, we discuss the major evasion mechanisms.
2021
Inglese
Uribe, M. L., Marrocco, I., Yarden, Y., Egfr in cancer: Signaling mechanisms, drugs and acquired resistance, <<CANCERS>>, 2021; 13 (11): 2748-2748. [doi:10.3390/cancers13112748] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227212]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/227212
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