Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous skin disease that affects primarily patients older than 60 years. The majority of BP cases are spontaneous, but BP can also be triggered by certain drugs’ exposures. Since 2011, a growing number of observations has been reporting cases of BP in Type 2 diabetic patients. These forms have been linked to the use of a new category of anti-diabetic drugs called dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPP-4i) or gliptins, but to date, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association are not completely elucidated. Although conventional and gliptin-associated BP are thought to share similar clinical and histopathological features, our thorough review of the most recent literature, shows that these 2 forms are quite distinct: DPP-4-i-associated BP seems to appear at an earlier age than spontaneous BP, it may manifest either as a noninflammatory or inflammatory phenotype, while the conventional form presents with a typical inflammatory phenotype. Additionally, an important distinctive histological feature was recently shown in Gliptin-associated BP: these forms may present a less significant eosinophils infiltrate in the upper dermis of peri-blister lesions compared to the skin of patients with spontaneous BP, and this seems a specific feature of the clinically non-inflammatory forms. In accordance with previous literature, we found that the direct immunofluorescence (DIF) gives identical findings in both DPP-4i-associated and conventional forms of BP which is an IgG and complement C3 deposition as a linear band at the dermal–epidermal junction in perilesional skin. Indirect immunofluorescence shows the presence of IgG circulating autoantibodies in the patient's serum which titer does not differ between spontaneous and DPP-4i-associated BP, while the specificity of these autoantibodies, may be different in spontaneous, induced non-inflammatory and induced inflammatory forms, epitope spreading phenomenon seems to play a role in determining these specificities. Further research, based on integrated epidemiological, clinical, histo-immunological and pharmacogenomic approaches, may give more insight into these forms of BP. This combined approach will allow to better define BP endotypes and to unveil the mechanism of spontaneous or drug-induced breakage of the immunotolerance to skin self-antigens.

Chouchane, K., Di Zenzo, G., Pitocco, D., Calabrese, L., De Simone, C., Bullous pemphigoid in diabetic patients treated by gliptins: the other side of the coin, <<JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE>>, 2021; 19 (N/A): 1-10. [doi:10.1186/s12967-021-03192-8] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/221565]

Bullous pemphigoid in diabetic patients treated by gliptins: the other side of the coin

Pitocco, D.;De Simone, C.
2021

Abstract

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous skin disease that affects primarily patients older than 60 years. The majority of BP cases are spontaneous, but BP can also be triggered by certain drugs’ exposures. Since 2011, a growing number of observations has been reporting cases of BP in Type 2 diabetic patients. These forms have been linked to the use of a new category of anti-diabetic drugs called dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPP-4i) or gliptins, but to date, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association are not completely elucidated. Although conventional and gliptin-associated BP are thought to share similar clinical and histopathological features, our thorough review of the most recent literature, shows that these 2 forms are quite distinct: DPP-4-i-associated BP seems to appear at an earlier age than spontaneous BP, it may manifest either as a noninflammatory or inflammatory phenotype, while the conventional form presents with a typical inflammatory phenotype. Additionally, an important distinctive histological feature was recently shown in Gliptin-associated BP: these forms may present a less significant eosinophils infiltrate in the upper dermis of peri-blister lesions compared to the skin of patients with spontaneous BP, and this seems a specific feature of the clinically non-inflammatory forms. In accordance with previous literature, we found that the direct immunofluorescence (DIF) gives identical findings in both DPP-4i-associated and conventional forms of BP which is an IgG and complement C3 deposition as a linear band at the dermal–epidermal junction in perilesional skin. Indirect immunofluorescence shows the presence of IgG circulating autoantibodies in the patient's serum which titer does not differ between spontaneous and DPP-4i-associated BP, while the specificity of these autoantibodies, may be different in spontaneous, induced non-inflammatory and induced inflammatory forms, epitope spreading phenomenon seems to play a role in determining these specificities. Further research, based on integrated epidemiological, clinical, histo-immunological and pharmacogenomic approaches, may give more insight into these forms of BP. This combined approach will allow to better define BP endotypes and to unveil the mechanism of spontaneous or drug-induced breakage of the immunotolerance to skin self-antigens.
Inglese
Chouchane, K., Di Zenzo, G., Pitocco, D., Calabrese, L., De Simone, C., Bullous pemphigoid in diabetic patients treated by gliptins: the other side of the coin, <<JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE>>, 2021; 19 (N/A): 1-10. [doi:10.1186/s12967-021-03192-8] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/221565]
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