Aging induces substantial remodeling of glia, including density, morphology, cytokine expression, and phagocytic capacity. Alterations of glial cells, such as hypertrophy of lysosomes, endosomes and peroxisomes, and the progressive accumulation of lipofuscin, lipid droplets, and other debris have also been reported. These abnormalities have been associated with significant declines of microglial processes and reduced ability to survey the surrounding tissue, maintain synapses, and recover from injury. Similarly, aged astrocytes show reduced capacity to support metabolite transportation to neurons. In the setting of reduced glial activity, stressors and/or injury signals can trigger a coordinated action of microglia and astrocytes that may amplify neuroinflammation and contribute to the release of neurotoxic factors. Oxidative stress and proteotoxic aggregates may burst astrocyte-mediated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus activating microglia, favoring microgliosis, and ultimately making the brain more susceptible to injury and/or neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the contribution of microglia and astrocyte oxidative stress to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, highlight the pathways that may help gain insights into their molecular mechanisms, and describe the benefits of antioxidant supplementation-based strategies.

Picca, A., Ferri, E., Calvani, R., Coelho-junior, H. J., Marzetti, E., Arosio, B., Age-Associated Glia Remodeling and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration: Antioxidant Supplementation as a Possible Intervention, <<NUTRIENTS>>, 2022; 14 (12): 1-16. [doi:10.3390/nu14122406] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/219492]

Age-Associated Glia Remodeling and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration: Antioxidant Supplementation as a Possible Intervention

Calvani, R.;Marzetti, E.;
2022

Abstract

Aging induces substantial remodeling of glia, including density, morphology, cytokine expression, and phagocytic capacity. Alterations of glial cells, such as hypertrophy of lysosomes, endosomes and peroxisomes, and the progressive accumulation of lipofuscin, lipid droplets, and other debris have also been reported. These abnormalities have been associated with significant declines of microglial processes and reduced ability to survey the surrounding tissue, maintain synapses, and recover from injury. Similarly, aged astrocytes show reduced capacity to support metabolite transportation to neurons. In the setting of reduced glial activity, stressors and/or injury signals can trigger a coordinated action of microglia and astrocytes that may amplify neuroinflammation and contribute to the release of neurotoxic factors. Oxidative stress and proteotoxic aggregates may burst astrocyte-mediated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus activating microglia, favoring microgliosis, and ultimately making the brain more susceptible to injury and/or neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the contribution of microglia and astrocyte oxidative stress to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, highlight the pathways that may help gain insights into their molecular mechanisms, and describe the benefits of antioxidant supplementation-based strategies.
Inglese
Picca, A., Ferri, E., Calvani, R., Coelho-junior, H. J., Marzetti, E., Arosio, B., Age-Associated Glia Remodeling and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration: Antioxidant Supplementation as a Possible Intervention, <<NUTRIENTS>>, 2022; 14 (12): 1-16. [doi:10.3390/nu14122406] [https://hdl.handle.net/10807/219492]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/219492
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