Despite being a crucial physiological function of the brain, the mechanisms underlying forgetting are still poorly understood. Estrogens play a critical role in different brain functions, including memory. However, the effects of sex hormones on forgetting vulnerability-mediated by retroactive interference (RI), a phenomenon in which newly acquired information interferes with the retrieval of already stored information, are still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to characterize the sex differences in interference-mediated forgetting and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that adult male C57bl/6 mice showed a higher susceptibility to RI-dependent memory loss than females. The preference index (PI) in the NOR paradigm was 52.7 +/- 5.9% in males and 62.3 +/- 13.0% in females. The resistance to RI in female mice was mediated by estrogen signaling involving estrogen receptor alpha activation in the dorsal hippocampus. Accordingly, following RI, females showed higher phosphorylation levels (+30%) of extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) in the hippocampus. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 made female mice prone to RI. The PI was 70.6 +/- 11.0% in vehicle-injected mice and 47.4 +/- 10.8% following PD98059 administration. Collectively, our data suggest that hippocampal estrogen alpha receptor-ERK1/2 signaling is critically involved in a pattern separation mechanism that inhibits object-related RI in female mice.

Rinaudo, M., Natale, F., La Greca, F., Spinelli, M., Farsetti, A., Paciello, F., Fusco, S., Grassi, C., Hippocampal Estrogen Signaling Mediates Sex Differences in Retroactive Interference, <<BIOMEDICINES>>, 2022; 10 (6): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/biomedicines10061387] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/214465]

Hippocampal Estrogen Signaling Mediates Sex Differences in Retroactive Interference

Rinaudo, Marco
Primo
;
Natale, Francesca;La Greca, Francesco;Spinelli, Matteo;Farsetti, Antonella;Paciello, Fabiola;Fusco, Salvatore;Grassi, Claudio
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Despite being a crucial physiological function of the brain, the mechanisms underlying forgetting are still poorly understood. Estrogens play a critical role in different brain functions, including memory. However, the effects of sex hormones on forgetting vulnerability-mediated by retroactive interference (RI), a phenomenon in which newly acquired information interferes with the retrieval of already stored information, are still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to characterize the sex differences in interference-mediated forgetting and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that adult male C57bl/6 mice showed a higher susceptibility to RI-dependent memory loss than females. The preference index (PI) in the NOR paradigm was 52.7 +/- 5.9% in males and 62.3 +/- 13.0% in females. The resistance to RI in female mice was mediated by estrogen signaling involving estrogen receptor alpha activation in the dorsal hippocampus. Accordingly, following RI, females showed higher phosphorylation levels (+30%) of extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) in the hippocampus. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 made female mice prone to RI. The PI was 70.6 +/- 11.0% in vehicle-injected mice and 47.4 +/- 10.8% following PD98059 administration. Collectively, our data suggest that hippocampal estrogen alpha receptor-ERK1/2 signaling is critically involved in a pattern separation mechanism that inhibits object-related RI in female mice.
Inglese
Rinaudo, M., Natale, F., La Greca, F., Spinelli, M., Farsetti, A., Paciello, F., Fusco, S., Grassi, C., Hippocampal Estrogen Signaling Mediates Sex Differences in Retroactive Interference, <<BIOMEDICINES>>, 2022; 10 (6): N/A-N/A. [doi:10.3390/biomedicines10061387] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/214465]
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