Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been shown to be linked to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection, a virus that infects B cells inside the CNS. The seminal study raises a key interest into the infectious origin of several other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.We will discuss here the infectious agents that have been studied over the years in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), a crippling arthritis that was treated a century ago with gold salts (anti mycobacterial agent), chloroquine (anti malarial agent), or sulphasalazine (an antibacterial-antiinflammatory agent). Several infectious agents have been taken into consideration, i.e. Streptococcus group A, Proteus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-MTB, Parvovirus B19, Epstein Barr virus, Porphyromonas gingivalis-Pg, Aggregatibacter actinomycetescomitans, and finally Haemophilus-Glaesserella parasuis-Hps. Of these agents only three satisfy the Witebski's criteria as possible pathogenetic causes of an autoimmune disease, i.e. MTB, Pg, Hps. We will discuss here how the immune tolerance might be broken, which could be the neoantigen or autoantigen involved, how the infectious agent was studied as a trigger capable of inducing arthritis in animal models. The preventive measures that should be adopted to lessen the impact of the infections, to prevent the burden and the severity of the illness are described.

Gremese, E., Tolusso, B., Bruno, D., Alivernini, S., Ferraccioli, G., Infectious agents breaking the immunological tolerance: The holy grail in rheumatoid arthritis reconsidered, <<AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS>>, 2022; 21 (6): 103102-N/A. [doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103102] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/205317]

Infectious agents breaking the immunological tolerance: The holy grail in rheumatoid arthritis reconsidered

Gremese, Elisa
;
Tolusso, Barbara;Bruno, Dario;Alivernini, Stefano;Ferraccioli, Gianfranco
2022

Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been shown to be linked to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection, a virus that infects B cells inside the CNS. The seminal study raises a key interest into the infectious origin of several other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.We will discuss here the infectious agents that have been studied over the years in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), a crippling arthritis that was treated a century ago with gold salts (anti mycobacterial agent), chloroquine (anti malarial agent), or sulphasalazine (an antibacterial-antiinflammatory agent). Several infectious agents have been taken into consideration, i.e. Streptococcus group A, Proteus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-MTB, Parvovirus B19, Epstein Barr virus, Porphyromonas gingivalis-Pg, Aggregatibacter actinomycetescomitans, and finally Haemophilus-Glaesserella parasuis-Hps. Of these agents only three satisfy the Witebski's criteria as possible pathogenetic causes of an autoimmune disease, i.e. MTB, Pg, Hps. We will discuss here how the immune tolerance might be broken, which could be the neoantigen or autoantigen involved, how the infectious agent was studied as a trigger capable of inducing arthritis in animal models. The preventive measures that should be adopted to lessen the impact of the infections, to prevent the burden and the severity of the illness are described.
Inglese
Gremese, E., Tolusso, B., Bruno, D., Alivernini, S., Ferraccioli, G., Infectious agents breaking the immunological tolerance: The holy grail in rheumatoid arthritis reconsidered, <>, 2022; 21 (6): 103102-N/A. [doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103102] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/205317]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10807/205317
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact