Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typical of early age, characterized by impaired communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. ASD patients frequently suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Neuro-psychological functions, intestinal homeostasis, and functional GI disturbances are modulated by the gut microbiota through the so-called ‘microbiota-gut-brain axis’. Areas covered: Literature regarding GI symptoms among the ASD community as well as the involvement and modulation of the gut microbiota in GI disturbances of ASD patients was searched. Constipation, diarrhea, reflux, abdominal bloating, pain, and discomfort are reported with variable prevalence. ASD is characterized by a reduction of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes, of the abundance of Bacteroidetes and other imbalances. ASD patients with GI symptoms present microbial changes with plausible relation with deficiency of digestive enzymes, carbohydrate malabsorption, selective eating, bacterial toxins, serotonin metabolism, and inflammation. The strategies to mitigate the GI distress through the gut microbiota modulation comprise antimicrobials, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and dietary intervention. Expert opinion: The modulation of the gut microbiota in ASD individuals with GI disturbances seems a promising target for the future medicine. A standardization of the research strategies for large-scale studies together with a focus on poorly explored fields is necessary to strengthen this hypothesis.

Settanni, C. R., Bibbo, S., Ianiro, G., Rinninella, E., Cintoni, M., Mele, M. C., Cammarota, G., Gasbarrini, A., Gastrointestinal involvement of autism spectrum disorder: focus on gut microbiota, <<EXPERT REVIEW OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY>>, n/a; 15 (6): 599-622. [doi:10.1080/17474124.2021.1869938] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/204544]

Gastrointestinal involvement of autism spectrum disorder: focus on gut microbiota

Settanni, Carlo Romano;Ianiro, Gianluca;Rinninella, Emanuele;Cintoni, Marco;Mele, Maria Cristina;Cammarota, Giovanni;Gasbarrini, Antonio
2021

Abstract

Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typical of early age, characterized by impaired communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. ASD patients frequently suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Neuro-psychological functions, intestinal homeostasis, and functional GI disturbances are modulated by the gut microbiota through the so-called ‘microbiota-gut-brain axis’. Areas covered: Literature regarding GI symptoms among the ASD community as well as the involvement and modulation of the gut microbiota in GI disturbances of ASD patients was searched. Constipation, diarrhea, reflux, abdominal bloating, pain, and discomfort are reported with variable prevalence. ASD is characterized by a reduction of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes, of the abundance of Bacteroidetes and other imbalances. ASD patients with GI symptoms present microbial changes with plausible relation with deficiency of digestive enzymes, carbohydrate malabsorption, selective eating, bacterial toxins, serotonin metabolism, and inflammation. The strategies to mitigate the GI distress through the gut microbiota modulation comprise antimicrobials, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and dietary intervention. Expert opinion: The modulation of the gut microbiota in ASD individuals with GI disturbances seems a promising target for the future medicine. A standardization of the research strategies for large-scale studies together with a focus on poorly explored fields is necessary to strengthen this hypothesis.
2021
Inglese
Settanni, C. R., Bibbo, S., Ianiro, G., Rinninella, E., Cintoni, M., Mele, M. C., Cammarota, G., Gasbarrini, A., Gastrointestinal involvement of autism spectrum disorder: focus on gut microbiota, <<EXPERT REVIEW OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY>>, n/a; 15 (6): 599-622. [doi:10.1080/17474124.2021.1869938] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/204544]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/204544
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