The micro-organisms residing within the gastrointestinal tract, namely gut microbiota, form a dynamic population proper of each individual, mostly composed by bacteria which co-evolved symbiotically with human species. The advances of culture-independent techniques allowed the understanding of the multiple functions of the gut microbiota in human physiology and disease, the latter often recognising a predisposing condition in an imbalanced intestinal microbial ecosystem (dysbiosis). A complex mutual interconnection between the central nervous system (CNS), the intestine and the gut microbiota, known as “microbiota-gut-brain axis”, has been hypothesized to play a pivotal role in maintaining central and peripheral functions, as well as mental health. Thus, dysbiosis with specific microbiota imbalances seems to be strongly associated with the onset psychiatric disorders by altering neurodevelopment, enhancing neurodegeneration, affecting behaviour and mood. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) consists of transferring the fecal matter from a donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient, and it is used to quickly modulate the gut microbiota. This review focuses on the uses of FMT in psychiatric disorders. FMT has been used to induce dysbiosis and to study the disease development, or to heal dysbiosis-related mental disorders. Overall, FMT of impaired microbiota resulted effective in enhancing psychiatric-like disturbances (mainly depression and anxiety) in recipient animals, plausibly by impairing immune system, inflammatory and metabolic pathways, neurochemical processes and neuro-transmission. On the other side, preclinical and clinical data suggest that reversing or mitigating dysbiosis seems a promising strategy to restore behavioural impairments or to obtain psychiatric symptom relief. However, current evidence is limited by the lack of procedural standardization, the paucity of human studies in the vastity of psychiatric conditions and the need of a microbiota-targeted donor-recipient matching.

Settanni, C. R., Ianiro, G., Bibbo, S., Cammarota, G., Gasbarrini, A., Gut microbiota alteration and modulation in psychiatric disorders: Current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantation, <<PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY>>, n/a; 109 (N/A): 110258-N/A. [doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110258] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/204373]

Gut microbiota alteration and modulation in psychiatric disorders: Current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantation

Settanni, C. R.;Ianiro, G.;Cammarota, G.;Gasbarrini, A.
2021

Abstract

The micro-organisms residing within the gastrointestinal tract, namely gut microbiota, form a dynamic population proper of each individual, mostly composed by bacteria which co-evolved symbiotically with human species. The advances of culture-independent techniques allowed the understanding of the multiple functions of the gut microbiota in human physiology and disease, the latter often recognising a predisposing condition in an imbalanced intestinal microbial ecosystem (dysbiosis). A complex mutual interconnection between the central nervous system (CNS), the intestine and the gut microbiota, known as “microbiota-gut-brain axis”, has been hypothesized to play a pivotal role in maintaining central and peripheral functions, as well as mental health. Thus, dysbiosis with specific microbiota imbalances seems to be strongly associated with the onset psychiatric disorders by altering neurodevelopment, enhancing neurodegeneration, affecting behaviour and mood. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) consists of transferring the fecal matter from a donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient, and it is used to quickly modulate the gut microbiota. This review focuses on the uses of FMT in psychiatric disorders. FMT has been used to induce dysbiosis and to study the disease development, or to heal dysbiosis-related mental disorders. Overall, FMT of impaired microbiota resulted effective in enhancing psychiatric-like disturbances (mainly depression and anxiety) in recipient animals, plausibly by impairing immune system, inflammatory and metabolic pathways, neurochemical processes and neuro-transmission. On the other side, preclinical and clinical data suggest that reversing or mitigating dysbiosis seems a promising strategy to restore behavioural impairments or to obtain psychiatric symptom relief. However, current evidence is limited by the lack of procedural standardization, the paucity of human studies in the vastity of psychiatric conditions and the need of a microbiota-targeted donor-recipient matching.
2021
Inglese
Settanni, C. R., Ianiro, G., Bibbo, S., Cammarota, G., Gasbarrini, A., Gut microbiota alteration and modulation in psychiatric disorders: Current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantation, <<PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY>>, n/a; 109 (N/A): 110258-N/A. [doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110258] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/204373]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/204373
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