INTRODUCTION 3D imaging is rapidly changing diagnostic procedures in all fields of dentistry. Intraoral scanners and three-dimensional radiographs, Tc and ConeBeam, have entered the routine of everyday clinical practice. Patient photography has also evolved into stereophotogrammetry, which obtains threedimensional images of the face. The advancements in 3D technologies have stimulated the production of software that allows the anatomy of the dental patient to be reconstructed in three dimensions. Technological development has stimulated research in finding ways to improve diagnostic programming and therapeutic programming. In recent years, many articles have been published that compare 2D technologies to 3D technologies in dental diagnosis. At the same time, new 3D image analysis systems were studied, enhanced by the development of artificial intelligence systems based on machine learning. Research in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology concerns automated diagnosis of dental and maxillofacial diseases, localization of anatomical landmarks for orthodontic and orthognathic treatment planning, and general improvement of image quality. Other recent research evaluates the quality and use of intraoral scanners and 3D software and printers for the design and implementation of therapeutic means. CAD / CAM technology is used in many fields of dentistry, especially in implantology, prosthetics, orthodontics, and maxillofacial surgery. Surgical guides for implantology and orthodontic miniscrews placement, provisional and definitive prosthetic restorations, and many orthodontic appliances are designed and built. In this field, research and technology are revolutionizing clinical procedures, which in many cases can follow a digital workflow. Finally, many studies propose the evaluation of stereophotogrammetry as a means of integrating 3D diagnosis. In this field, scientific research has produced works on the evaluation of the means of image acquisition and on the positioning of landmarks that allow measuring the proportions * Address correspondence to this author at the Dental Institute, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS. L.go A. Gemelli, 8 – 00168 Rome, Italy; E-mail: cristina.grippaudo@unicatt.it of the facial volumes and accurately observing the effects of therapies on soft tissues. As a demonstration of the novelty and scientific interest in this topic, the production of scientific works is constantly increasing. The researchers are trying to overcome the gap in the difficulty of using the technology through the proposal of automatic 3D image processing systems, which make clinical application easier. This Guest Editor issue is particularly dedicated to updating the knowledge regarding the use of digital devices in the diagnostic process. One of the results in publishing articles on 3D diagnosis is to show the community of dentists how to use the new technologies in daily practice. I am grateful to the Editorial Board of The Open Dentistry Journal at Bentham OPEN for this special issue. The articles collected in this issue report the novelties brought by digital technologies in orthodontics. One of the most peculiar effects of using new technologies is that dentists are allowed to study the face of the patient and measure it precisely. This aspect is very important for orthodontic diagnosis, but its importance is growing in all the fields of dentistry due to the increase of attention on the facial aspect. Facial esthetic today has the same importance as dental occlusion and function, thus has contributed to increasing the multidisciplinarity of dental intervention

Grippaudo, C., 3D Diagnosis in Dentistry, <<THE OPEN DENTISTRY JOURNAL>>, 2022; 2022 (16 (suppl.2, M3)): 1-2. [doi:10.2174/18742106-v16-e2203010] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/203926]

3D Diagnosis in Dentistry

Cristina Grippaudo
2022

Abstract

INTRODUCTION 3D imaging is rapidly changing diagnostic procedures in all fields of dentistry. Intraoral scanners and three-dimensional radiographs, Tc and ConeBeam, have entered the routine of everyday clinical practice. Patient photography has also evolved into stereophotogrammetry, which obtains threedimensional images of the face. The advancements in 3D technologies have stimulated the production of software that allows the anatomy of the dental patient to be reconstructed in three dimensions. Technological development has stimulated research in finding ways to improve diagnostic programming and therapeutic programming. In recent years, many articles have been published that compare 2D technologies to 3D technologies in dental diagnosis. At the same time, new 3D image analysis systems were studied, enhanced by the development of artificial intelligence systems based on machine learning. Research in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology concerns automated diagnosis of dental and maxillofacial diseases, localization of anatomical landmarks for orthodontic and orthognathic treatment planning, and general improvement of image quality. Other recent research evaluates the quality and use of intraoral scanners and 3D software and printers for the design and implementation of therapeutic means. CAD / CAM technology is used in many fields of dentistry, especially in implantology, prosthetics, orthodontics, and maxillofacial surgery. Surgical guides for implantology and orthodontic miniscrews placement, provisional and definitive prosthetic restorations, and many orthodontic appliances are designed and built. In this field, research and technology are revolutionizing clinical procedures, which in many cases can follow a digital workflow. Finally, many studies propose the evaluation of stereophotogrammetry as a means of integrating 3D diagnosis. In this field, scientific research has produced works on the evaluation of the means of image acquisition and on the positioning of landmarks that allow measuring the proportions * Address correspondence to this author at the Dental Institute, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS. L.go A. Gemelli, 8 – 00168 Rome, Italy; E-mail: cristina.grippaudo@unicatt.it of the facial volumes and accurately observing the effects of therapies on soft tissues. As a demonstration of the novelty and scientific interest in this topic, the production of scientific works is constantly increasing. The researchers are trying to overcome the gap in the difficulty of using the technology through the proposal of automatic 3D image processing systems, which make clinical application easier. This Guest Editor issue is particularly dedicated to updating the knowledge regarding the use of digital devices in the diagnostic process. One of the results in publishing articles on 3D diagnosis is to show the community of dentists how to use the new technologies in daily practice. I am grateful to the Editorial Board of The Open Dentistry Journal at Bentham OPEN for this special issue. The articles collected in this issue report the novelties brought by digital technologies in orthodontics. One of the most peculiar effects of using new technologies is that dentists are allowed to study the face of the patient and measure it precisely. This aspect is very important for orthodontic diagnosis, but its importance is growing in all the fields of dentistry due to the increase of attention on the facial aspect. Facial esthetic today has the same importance as dental occlusion and function, thus has contributed to increasing the multidisciplinarity of dental intervention
eng
Grippaudo, C., 3D Diagnosis in Dentistry, <>, 2022; 2022 (16 (suppl.2, M3)): 1-2. [doi:10.2174/18742106-v16-e2203010] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/203926]
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