OBJECTIVE: Acute Intestinal ischemia (AII) may involve the small and/or large bowel after any process affecting intestinal blood flow. COVID-19-related gastrointestinal manifestations, including AII, have been attributed to pharmacologic effects, metabolic disorders in ICU patients and other opportunistic colonic pathogens. AII in COVID-19 patients may be due also to "viral enteropathy" and SARS-CoV-2-induced small vessel thrombosis. A critical appraisal of personal experience regarding COVID-19 and AII was carried out comparing this with a systematic literature review of published series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational clinical cohort study and a systematic literature review including only COVID-19 positive patients with acute arterial or venous intestinal ischemia were performed. The primary endpoint of the study was the mortality rate. Secondary endpoints were occurrence of major complications and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Patient mean age was 62.9±14.9, with a prevalence of male gender (23 male, 72% vs. 9 female, 28%). The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.1±2.7. Surgery was performed in 24/32 patients (75.0%), with a mean delay time from admission to surgery of 6.0 ±5.6 days. Small bowel ischemia was confirmed to be the most common finding at surgical exploration (22/24, 91.7%). Acute abdomen at admission to the ED (Group 1) was observed in 10 (31.2%) cases, while 16 (50%) patients developed an acute abdomen condition during hospitalization (Group 2) for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our literature review showed how intestinal ischemia in patients with SARSCoV-2 has been reported all over the world. The majority of the patients have a high CCI with multiple comorbidities, above all hypertension and cardiovascular disease. GI symptoms were not always present at the admission. A high level of suspicion for intestinal ischemia should be maintained in COVID-19 patients presenting with GI symptoms or with incremental abdominal pain. Nevertheless, a prompt thromboelastogram and laboratory test may confirm the need of improving and fastening the use of anticoagulants and trigger an extended indication for early abdominal CECT in patients with suggestive symptoms or biochemical markers of intestinal ischemia.

Fransvea, P., Costa, G., Pepe, G., La Greca, A., Magalini, S., Puccioni, C., D'agostino, L., Altieri, G., Borello, A., Cozza, V., Sganga, G., Acute intestinal ischemia in patients with COVID-19: single-centre experience and literature review, <<EUROPEAN REVIEW FOR MEDICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES>>, 2022; 26 (4): 1414-1429. [doi:10.26355/eurrev_202202_28135] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/203813]

Acute intestinal ischemia in patients with COVID-19: single-centre experience and literature review

Fransvea P.;Pepe G.;La Greca A.;Magalini S.;Puccioni C.;D'Agostino L.;Altieri G.;Cozza V.;Sganga G.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Acute Intestinal ischemia (AII) may involve the small and/or large bowel after any process affecting intestinal blood flow. COVID-19-related gastrointestinal manifestations, including AII, have been attributed to pharmacologic effects, metabolic disorders in ICU patients and other opportunistic colonic pathogens. AII in COVID-19 patients may be due also to "viral enteropathy" and SARS-CoV-2-induced small vessel thrombosis. A critical appraisal of personal experience regarding COVID-19 and AII was carried out comparing this with a systematic literature review of published series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational clinical cohort study and a systematic literature review including only COVID-19 positive patients with acute arterial or venous intestinal ischemia were performed. The primary endpoint of the study was the mortality rate. Secondary endpoints were occurrence of major complications and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Patient mean age was 62.9±14.9, with a prevalence of male gender (23 male, 72% vs. 9 female, 28%). The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.1±2.7. Surgery was performed in 24/32 patients (75.0%), with a mean delay time from admission to surgery of 6.0 ±5.6 days. Small bowel ischemia was confirmed to be the most common finding at surgical exploration (22/24, 91.7%). Acute abdomen at admission to the ED (Group 1) was observed in 10 (31.2%) cases, while 16 (50%) patients developed an acute abdomen condition during hospitalization (Group 2) for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our literature review showed how intestinal ischemia in patients with SARSCoV-2 has been reported all over the world. The majority of the patients have a high CCI with multiple comorbidities, above all hypertension and cardiovascular disease. GI symptoms were not always present at the admission. A high level of suspicion for intestinal ischemia should be maintained in COVID-19 patients presenting with GI symptoms or with incremental abdominal pain. Nevertheless, a prompt thromboelastogram and laboratory test may confirm the need of improving and fastening the use of anticoagulants and trigger an extended indication for early abdominal CECT in patients with suggestive symptoms or biochemical markers of intestinal ischemia.
Inglese
Fransvea, P., Costa, G., Pepe, G., La Greca, A., Magalini, S., Puccioni, C., D'agostino, L., Altieri, G., Borello, A., Cozza, V., Sganga, G., Acute intestinal ischemia in patients with COVID-19: single-centre experience and literature review, <>, 2022; 26 (4): 1414-1429. [doi:10.26355/eurrev_202202_28135] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/203813]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10807/203813
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