Pancreatic cystic lesions are increasingly detected in cross-sectional imaging. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a mucin-producing subtype of the pancreatic cyst lesions arising from the pancreatic duct system. IPMN is a potential precursor of pancreatic cancer. The transformation of IPMN in pancreatic cancer is progressive and requires the occurrence of low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and ultimately invasive cancer. Jaundice, enhancing mural nodule >5 mm, main pancreatic duct diameter >10 mm, and positive cytology for high-grade dysplasia are considered high-risk stigmata of malignancy. While increased levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) (>37 U/mL), main pancreatic duct diameter 5–9.9 mm, cyst diameter >40 mm, enhancing mural nodules <5 mm, IPMN-induced acute pancreatitis, new onset of diabetes, cyst grow-rate >5 mm/year are considered worrisome features of malignancy. However, cross-sectional imaging is often inadequate in the prediction of high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. Several studies evaluated the role of humoral and intra-cystic biomarkers in the prediction of malignancy in IPMN. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9, intra-cystic CEA, intra-cystic glucose, and cystic fluid cytology are widely used in clinical practice to distinguish between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts and to predict the presence of invasive cancer. Other biomarkers such as cystic fluid DNA sequencing, microRNA (mi-RNA), circulating microvesicles, and liquid biopsy are the new options for the mini-invasive diagnosis of degenerated IPMN. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the role of humoral and intracystic biomarkers in the prediction of advanced IPMN with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma.

Nista, E. C., Schepis, T., Candelli, M., Giuli, L., Pignataro, G., Franceschi, F., Gasbarrini, A., Ojetti, V., Humoral predictors of malignancy in IPMN: A review of the literature, <<INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES>>, 2021; 22 (23): 12839-12848. [doi:10.3390/ijms222312839] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/202323]

Humoral predictors of malignancy in IPMN: A review of the literature

Nista E. C.;Schepis T.;Candelli M.;Giuli L.;Pignataro G.;Franceschi F.;Gasbarrini A.;Ojetti V.
2021

Abstract

Pancreatic cystic lesions are increasingly detected in cross-sectional imaging. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a mucin-producing subtype of the pancreatic cyst lesions arising from the pancreatic duct system. IPMN is a potential precursor of pancreatic cancer. The transformation of IPMN in pancreatic cancer is progressive and requires the occurrence of low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and ultimately invasive cancer. Jaundice, enhancing mural nodule >5 mm, main pancreatic duct diameter >10 mm, and positive cytology for high-grade dysplasia are considered high-risk stigmata of malignancy. While increased levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) (>37 U/mL), main pancreatic duct diameter 5–9.9 mm, cyst diameter >40 mm, enhancing mural nodules <5 mm, IPMN-induced acute pancreatitis, new onset of diabetes, cyst grow-rate >5 mm/year are considered worrisome features of malignancy. However, cross-sectional imaging is often inadequate in the prediction of high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. Several studies evaluated the role of humoral and intra-cystic biomarkers in the prediction of malignancy in IPMN. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9, intra-cystic CEA, intra-cystic glucose, and cystic fluid cytology are widely used in clinical practice to distinguish between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts and to predict the presence of invasive cancer. Other biomarkers such as cystic fluid DNA sequencing, microRNA (mi-RNA), circulating microvesicles, and liquid biopsy are the new options for the mini-invasive diagnosis of degenerated IPMN. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the role of humoral and intracystic biomarkers in the prediction of advanced IPMN with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma.
Inglese
Nista, E. C., Schepis, T., Candelli, M., Giuli, L., Pignataro, G., Franceschi, F., Gasbarrini, A., Ojetti, V., Humoral predictors of malignancy in IPMN: A review of the literature, <>, 2021; 22 (23): 12839-12848. [doi:10.3390/ijms222312839] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/202323]
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