Mitochondria serve as a hub for a multitude of vital cellular processes. To ensure an efficient deployment of mitochondrial tasks, organelle homeostasis needs to be preserved. Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) mechanisms (i.e., mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, proteostasis, and autophagy) are in place to safeguard organelle integrity and functionality. Defective MQC has been reported in several conditions characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. In this context, the displacement of mitochondrial components, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), into the extracellular compartment is a possible factor eliciting an innate immune response. The presence of bacterial-like CpG islands in mtDNA makes this molecule recognized as a damaged-associated molecular pattern by the innate immune system. Following cell death-triggering stressors, mtDNA can be released from the cell and ignite inflammation via several pathways. Crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis has emerged as a pivotal factor for the regulation of mtDNA release, cell's fate, and inflammation. The repression of mtDNA-mediated interferon production, a powerful driver of immunological cell death, is also regulated by autophagy-apoptosis crosstalk. Interferon production during mtDNA-mediated inflammation may be exploited for the elimination of dying cells and their conversion into elements driving anti-tumor immunity.

Picca, A., Calvani, R., Coelho-Junior, H. J., Marzetti, E., Cell Death and Inflammation: The Role of Mitochondria in Health and Disease, <<CELLS>>, 2021; 10 (3): 1-17. [doi:10.3390/cells10030537] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/201071]

Cell Death and Inflammation: The Role of Mitochondria in Health and Disease

Calvani, Riccardo;Marzetti, Emanuele
2021

Abstract

Mitochondria serve as a hub for a multitude of vital cellular processes. To ensure an efficient deployment of mitochondrial tasks, organelle homeostasis needs to be preserved. Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) mechanisms (i.e., mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, proteostasis, and autophagy) are in place to safeguard organelle integrity and functionality. Defective MQC has been reported in several conditions characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. In this context, the displacement of mitochondrial components, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), into the extracellular compartment is a possible factor eliciting an innate immune response. The presence of bacterial-like CpG islands in mtDNA makes this molecule recognized as a damaged-associated molecular pattern by the innate immune system. Following cell death-triggering stressors, mtDNA can be released from the cell and ignite inflammation via several pathways. Crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis has emerged as a pivotal factor for the regulation of mtDNA release, cell's fate, and inflammation. The repression of mtDNA-mediated interferon production, a powerful driver of immunological cell death, is also regulated by autophagy-apoptosis crosstalk. Interferon production during mtDNA-mediated inflammation may be exploited for the elimination of dying cells and their conversion into elements driving anti-tumor immunity.
2021
Inglese
Picca, A., Calvani, R., Coelho-Junior, H. J., Marzetti, E., Cell Death and Inflammation: The Role of Mitochondria in Health and Disease, <<CELLS>>, 2021; 10 (3): 1-17. [doi:10.3390/cells10030537] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/201071]
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