Extracellular vesicles have been identified as pivotal mediators of intercellular communication with critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Via this route, several molecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites) can be transferred to proximal and distant targets to convey specific information. Extracellular vesicle-associated cargo molecules have been proposed as markers of several disease conditions for their potential of tracking down the generating cell. Indeed, circulating extracellular vesicles may represent biomarkers of dysfunctional cellular quality control systems especially in conditions characterized by the accrual of intracellular misfolded proteins. Furthermore, the identification of extracellular vesicles as tools for the delivery of nucleic acids or other cargo molecules to diseased tissues makes these circulating shuttles possible targets for therapeutic development. The increasing interest in the study of extracellular vesicles as biomarkers resides mainly in the fact that the identification of peripheral levels of extracellular vesicle-associated proteins might reflect molecular events occurring in hardly accessible tissues, such as the brain, thereby serving as a 'brain liquid biopsy'. The exploitation of extracellular vesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposed might offer unprecedented opportunities to develop personalized approaches. Here, we discuss the bright and dark sides of extracellular vesicles in the setting of two main neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). A special focus will be placed on the possibility of using extracellular vesicles as biomarkers for the two conditions to enable disease tracking and treatment monitoring.

Picca, A., Guerra, F., Calvani, R., Coelho-Junior, H., Bucci, C., Marzetti, E., Circulating extracellular vesicles: Friends and foes in neurodegeneration, <<NEURAL REGENERATION RESEARCH>>, 2022; 17 (3): 534-542. [doi:10.4103/1673-5374.320972] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200993]

Circulating extracellular vesicles: Friends and foes in neurodegeneration

Calvani, Riccardo;Marzetti, Emanuele
2022

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles have been identified as pivotal mediators of intercellular communication with critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Via this route, several molecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites) can be transferred to proximal and distant targets to convey specific information. Extracellular vesicle-associated cargo molecules have been proposed as markers of several disease conditions for their potential of tracking down the generating cell. Indeed, circulating extracellular vesicles may represent biomarkers of dysfunctional cellular quality control systems especially in conditions characterized by the accrual of intracellular misfolded proteins. Furthermore, the identification of extracellular vesicles as tools for the delivery of nucleic acids or other cargo molecules to diseased tissues makes these circulating shuttles possible targets for therapeutic development. The increasing interest in the study of extracellular vesicles as biomarkers resides mainly in the fact that the identification of peripheral levels of extracellular vesicle-associated proteins might reflect molecular events occurring in hardly accessible tissues, such as the brain, thereby serving as a 'brain liquid biopsy'. The exploitation of extracellular vesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposed might offer unprecedented opportunities to develop personalized approaches. Here, we discuss the bright and dark sides of extracellular vesicles in the setting of two main neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). A special focus will be placed on the possibility of using extracellular vesicles as biomarkers for the two conditions to enable disease tracking and treatment monitoring.
2022
Inglese
Picca, A., Guerra, F., Calvani, R., Coelho-Junior, H., Bucci, C., Marzetti, E., Circulating extracellular vesicles: Friends and foes in neurodegeneration, <<NEURAL REGENERATION RESEARCH>>, 2022; 17 (3): 534-542. [doi:10.4103/1673-5374.320972] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200993]
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