For many years, cell lines and animal models have been essential to improve our understanding of the basis of cell metabolism, signaling, and genetics. They also provided an essential boost to cancer drug discovery. Nevertheless, these model systems failed to reproduce the tumor heterogeneity and the complex biological interactions between cancer cells and human hosts, making a high priority search for alternative methods that are able to export results from model systems to humans, which has become a major bottleneck in the drug development. The emergent human in vitro 3D cell culture technologies have attracted widespread attention because they seem to have the potential to overcome these limitations. Organoids are unique 3D culture models with the ability to self-organize in contained structures. Their versatility has offered an exceptional window of opportunity to approach human cancers. Pancreatic cancers (PCs) patient-derived-organoids (PDOs) preserve histological, genomic, and molecular features of neoplasms they originate from and therefore retain their heterogeneity. Patient-derived organoids can be established with a high success rate from minimal tissue core specimens acquired with endoscopic-ultrasound-guided techniques and assembled into platforms, representing tens to hundreds of cancers each conserving specific features, expanding the types of patient samples that can be propagated and analyzed in the laboratory. Because of their nature, PDO platforms are multipurpose systems that can be easily adapted in co-culture settings to perform a wide spectrum of studies, ranging from drug discovery to immune response evaluation to tumor-stroma interaction. This possibility to increase the complexity of organoids creating a hybrid culture with non-epithelial cells increases the interest in organoid-based platforms giving a pragmatic way to deeply study biological interactions in vitro. In this view, implementing organoid models in co-clinical trials to compare drug responses may represent the next step toward even more personalized medicine. In the present review, we discuss how PDO platforms are shaping modern-day oncology aiding to unravel the most complex aspects of PC.

Piro, G., Agostini, A., Larghi, A. L., Quero, G., Carbone, C., Esposito, A., Rizzatti, G., Attili, F., Alfieri, S., Costamagna, G., Tortora, G., Pancreatic Cancer Patient-Derived Organoid Platforms: A Clinical Tool to Study Cell- and Non-Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms of Treatment Response, <<FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE>>, 2021; 8 (Dec): 793144-N/A. [doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.793144] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200823]

Pancreatic Cancer Patient-Derived Organoid Platforms: A Clinical Tool to Study Cell- and Non-Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms of Treatment Response

Agostini, Antonio;Larghi, Alberto Leonardo;Quero, Giuseppe;Rizzatti, Gianenrico;Attili, Fabia;Alfieri, Sergio;Costamagna, Guido;Tortora, Giampaolo
2021

Abstract

For many years, cell lines and animal models have been essential to improve our understanding of the basis of cell metabolism, signaling, and genetics. They also provided an essential boost to cancer drug discovery. Nevertheless, these model systems failed to reproduce the tumor heterogeneity and the complex biological interactions between cancer cells and human hosts, making a high priority search for alternative methods that are able to export results from model systems to humans, which has become a major bottleneck in the drug development. The emergent human in vitro 3D cell culture technologies have attracted widespread attention because they seem to have the potential to overcome these limitations. Organoids are unique 3D culture models with the ability to self-organize in contained structures. Their versatility has offered an exceptional window of opportunity to approach human cancers. Pancreatic cancers (PCs) patient-derived-organoids (PDOs) preserve histological, genomic, and molecular features of neoplasms they originate from and therefore retain their heterogeneity. Patient-derived organoids can be established with a high success rate from minimal tissue core specimens acquired with endoscopic-ultrasound-guided techniques and assembled into platforms, representing tens to hundreds of cancers each conserving specific features, expanding the types of patient samples that can be propagated and analyzed in the laboratory. Because of their nature, PDO platforms are multipurpose systems that can be easily adapted in co-culture settings to perform a wide spectrum of studies, ranging from drug discovery to immune response evaluation to tumor-stroma interaction. This possibility to increase the complexity of organoids creating a hybrid culture with non-epithelial cells increases the interest in organoid-based platforms giving a pragmatic way to deeply study biological interactions in vitro. In this view, implementing organoid models in co-clinical trials to compare drug responses may represent the next step toward even more personalized medicine. In the present review, we discuss how PDO platforms are shaping modern-day oncology aiding to unravel the most complex aspects of PC.
2021
Inglese
Piro, G., Agostini, A., Larghi, A. L., Quero, G., Carbone, C., Esposito, A., Rizzatti, G., Attili, F., Alfieri, S., Costamagna, G., Tortora, G., Pancreatic Cancer Patient-Derived Organoid Platforms: A Clinical Tool to Study Cell- and Non-Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms of Treatment Response, <<FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE>>, 2021; 8 (Dec): 793144-N/A. [doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.793144] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200823]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/200823
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