Background: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in anticoagulated patients is a common challenge for emergency departments because of lack of appropriate epidemiological data and huge management variability for those under oral anticoagulation therapy. Given the discrepancies between guidelines, the aim of the present study was to quantify the association between oral anticoagulant therapy (either vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)) and the post-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage worsening compared to admission CT scan. Methods: We included all consecutive records of patients admitted to our emergency department for mild TBI as chief complaint and with a positive admission CT scan. After statistical univariate comparison, cause-specific hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined with the use of Cox proportional hazard model. Results: In the study period, 4667 patients had a CT scan for mild TBI; 439 (9.4%) were found to have intracranial hemorrhage. Among these patients, 299 (68.1%) were prescribed observation and control CT: 46 (15.38%) were on anticoagulant therapy, 23 (50%) on VKA, and 23 (50%) on DOAC. In multivariate analysis, only oral anticoagulation therapy was significantly associated to an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage progression (HR 2.58; 95% CI 1.411–4.703; p =.002 and HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.004–3.735; p =.0048 for VKA and DOAC, respectively). Surgery was due to isolated subdural hematoma in 87.5% of cases, to subdural hematoma associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 9.38% and to intraparenchymal hemorrhage only in 3.12%; 13 cases (4.35%) deceased in intensive care unit. Conclusions: In our series, anticoagulation was associated to a significant increase in intracranial progression, leaving the question open as to what this implies in current clinical practice; subdural hematoma was the major finding associated to evolution and surgery. Against this background, further studies are needed to clarify patients’ management and DOAC safety profile compared to VKA in mild TBI.

Della Pepa, G. M., Covino, M., Menna, G., Auricchio, A. M., Polli, F. M., Manno, A., Simeoni, B., Olivi, A., Franceschi, F., Are oral anticoagulants a risk factor for mild traumatic brain injury progression? A single-center experience focused on of direct oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists, <<ACTA NEUROCHIRURGICA>>, 2022; 164 (1): 97-105. [doi:10.1007/s00701-021-05066-w] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200107]

Are oral anticoagulants a risk factor for mild traumatic brain injury progression? A single-center experience focused on of direct oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists

Della Pepa G. M.;Covino M.;Menna G.;Auricchio A. M.;Polli F. M.;Manno A.;Olivi A.;Franceschi F.
2022

Abstract

Background: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in anticoagulated patients is a common challenge for emergency departments because of lack of appropriate epidemiological data and huge management variability for those under oral anticoagulation therapy. Given the discrepancies between guidelines, the aim of the present study was to quantify the association between oral anticoagulant therapy (either vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)) and the post-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage worsening compared to admission CT scan. Methods: We included all consecutive records of patients admitted to our emergency department for mild TBI as chief complaint and with a positive admission CT scan. After statistical univariate comparison, cause-specific hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined with the use of Cox proportional hazard model. Results: In the study period, 4667 patients had a CT scan for mild TBI; 439 (9.4%) were found to have intracranial hemorrhage. Among these patients, 299 (68.1%) were prescribed observation and control CT: 46 (15.38%) were on anticoagulant therapy, 23 (50%) on VKA, and 23 (50%) on DOAC. In multivariate analysis, only oral anticoagulation therapy was significantly associated to an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage progression (HR 2.58; 95% CI 1.411–4.703; p =.002 and HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.004–3.735; p =.0048 for VKA and DOAC, respectively). Surgery was due to isolated subdural hematoma in 87.5% of cases, to subdural hematoma associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 9.38% and to intraparenchymal hemorrhage only in 3.12%; 13 cases (4.35%) deceased in intensive care unit. Conclusions: In our series, anticoagulation was associated to a significant increase in intracranial progression, leaving the question open as to what this implies in current clinical practice; subdural hematoma was the major finding associated to evolution and surgery. Against this background, further studies are needed to clarify patients’ management and DOAC safety profile compared to VKA in mild TBI.
eng
Della Pepa, G. M., Covino, M., Menna, G., Auricchio, A. M., Polli, F. M., Manno, A., Simeoni, B., Olivi, A., Franceschi, F., Are oral anticoagulants a risk factor for mild traumatic brain injury progression? A single-center experience focused on of direct oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists, <>, 2022; 164 (1): 97-105. [doi:10.1007/s00701-021-05066-w] [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200107]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10807/200107
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