While already widespread in several European countries and the United States at the beginning of the 1920s, radio broadcasts began in Italy in the autumn of 1924. The first radio station opened in Rome with many others soon following. To date, various studies have researched radio development and its use for propaganda and recreational purposes throughout the Fascist period. Also, it has been studied the role that radio broadcasts played during those years to create a mass Italian society. Despite radios being credited with shaping the Italian «collective memory» and the general appreciation of the important role played by radio in reaching out to all Italians (even those who were illiterate and thus unable to read books or newspapers), there is a certain lack of attention given to the medium of radio by scholars of the history of education. Researchers into the birth of Italian radio broadcasting have pointed out the interest in childhood and school. Yet, there are very few studies that have thoroughly investigated stages, features, protagonists of such subject. This essay plans to close this gap in knowledge by looking into the history of the first radio broadcasting meant for the Italian youth in the Fascist period, from their beginning in 1925 until 1933: the time period when the Mussolini government promoted the birth of the organization Ente Radio Rurale with the aim to reach out to as many Italians as possible. During this time period, each station still acted autonomously in their programming for youths, and the programs had much in common with other excellences in children’s literature and journalism of the beginning of the 1920s even if Fascism was soon to pervade considerably all radio programming for younger audiences. The research has started with a review of the magazines used by Italian radio programmers to list all programs meant for the youths of the time and discover about their creators and their collaborators. We have analyzed all magazines published first by the Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) and then, from 1930, by the Ente Italiano Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) such as the «Radiorario» (1925-1929), the «Radiocorriere» (from 1930), and the EIAR «Annuario». Similarly, we have also reviewed all books signed by those radio hosts who have left accounts, written texts and track lists for their programs meant for the Italian youths.

Già diffusa in alcuni Paesi europei e negli Stati Uniti d’America agli inizi degli anni Venti, la radio avviava le trasmissioni anche in Italia nell’autunno del 1924 con l’inaugurazione della stazione di Roma, presto seguita da altre numerose. Molti studi hanno preso in esame gli sviluppi della radiofonia e il suo impiego per fini propagandistici e di svago durante il ventennio fascista, nonché il contributo dato, a partire sempre da quel periodo, alla trasformazione del nostro Paese in una società di massa. A fronte del riconoscimento del ruolo svolto dalla radio, potenzialmente in grado di arrivare e di parlare a tutti gli italiani, anche agli analfabeti, diversamente dal libro o dal giornale, va rilevata la scarsa attenzione della storia dell’educazione per questo mezzo di comunicazione che, al pari di altri, ha contribuito a costruire la “memoria collettiva” della nazione. Le ricerche sulla genesi della radiofonia italiana hanno segnalato l’interesse per l’infanzia e la scuola. Pochissimi però sono gli studi che hanno indagato in modo organico tappe, aspetti, protagonisti di questa vicenda. Il presente saggio vuole colmare questa lacuna e percorrere, all’interno del ventennio fascista, un tratto di questa storia, ovvero quella relativa a una prima fase delle trasmissioni radiofoniche per i più giovani, che va dalle origini, nel 1925, al 1933, anno in cui il governo Mussolini istituì l’Ente Radio Rurale, con lo scopo di raggiungere il più capillarmente possibile con la radio gli italiani. Si tratta di una fase connotata da un’azione autonoma delle diverse stazioni nella programmazione per la fanciullezza e da continuità con le migliori esperienze di letteratura e pubblicistica per l’infanzia del primo ventennio del Novecento anche se, in modo via via più deciso, il fascismo pervadeva lo spazio radiofonico per i ragazzi. La ricerca ha preso le mosse dallo spoglio della stampa periodica espressione della radio italiana per censire le trasmissioni rivolte ai più piccoli e fare luce sui nomi degli ideatori e dei collaboratori. Sono state analizzate le riviste edite dall’Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI), prima, e dall’Ente Italiano Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) dopo, ovvero il «Radiorario» (1925-1929), il «Radiocorriere» (dal 1930), nonché l’«Annuario» dell’EIAR. Analoga attenzione è stata riservata alle pubblicazioni scritte dai conduttori dei programmi per ragazzi, che raccolgono memorie, testi e tracce per le trasmissioni.

Ghizzoni, C. F., La radio per ragazzi nei primi anni del fascismo (1925-1933), <<HISTORY OF EDUCATION & CHILDREN'S LITERATURE>>, 2018; XIII (2): 219-250 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/129569]

La radio per ragazzi nei primi anni del fascismo (1925-1933)

Ghizzoni, Carla Francesca
2018

Abstract

While already widespread in several European countries and the United States at the beginning of the 1920s, radio broadcasts began in Italy in the autumn of 1924. The first radio station opened in Rome with many others soon following. To date, various studies have researched radio development and its use for propaganda and recreational purposes throughout the Fascist period. Also, it has been studied the role that radio broadcasts played during those years to create a mass Italian society. Despite radios being credited with shaping the Italian «collective memory» and the general appreciation of the important role played by radio in reaching out to all Italians (even those who were illiterate and thus unable to read books or newspapers), there is a certain lack of attention given to the medium of radio by scholars of the history of education. Researchers into the birth of Italian radio broadcasting have pointed out the interest in childhood and school. Yet, there are very few studies that have thoroughly investigated stages, features, protagonists of such subject. This essay plans to close this gap in knowledge by looking into the history of the first radio broadcasting meant for the Italian youth in the Fascist period, from their beginning in 1925 until 1933: the time period when the Mussolini government promoted the birth of the organization Ente Radio Rurale with the aim to reach out to as many Italians as possible. During this time period, each station still acted autonomously in their programming for youths, and the programs had much in common with other excellences in children’s literature and journalism of the beginning of the 1920s even if Fascism was soon to pervade considerably all radio programming for younger audiences. The research has started with a review of the magazines used by Italian radio programmers to list all programs meant for the youths of the time and discover about their creators and their collaborators. We have analyzed all magazines published first by the Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) and then, from 1930, by the Ente Italiano Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) such as the «Radiorario» (1925-1929), the «Radiocorriere» (from 1930), and the EIAR «Annuario». Similarly, we have also reviewed all books signed by those radio hosts who have left accounts, written texts and track lists for their programs meant for the Italian youths.
2018
Italiano
Ghizzoni, C. F., La radio per ragazzi nei primi anni del fascismo (1925-1933), <<HISTORY OF EDUCATION & CHILDREN'S LITERATURE>>, 2018; XIII (2): 219-250 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/129569]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10807/129569
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