Eight essays on Symbolism by Sergio Cigada, published in italian between 1960 and 2010, collected here for the fist time and translated into French. 1) Charles Baudelaire : Anthropology and Poetics. The life of Man is exile in a hostile land, where original harmony is corrupted and broken down. In the work of art, these heterogeneous fragments are composed by means of Imagination, and the original unity of the cosmos is restored. Baudelaire translates this idea of man and of art into rhetoric which merges heterogeneous parts of language into stylistic figures (such as thematic association, paysage d’âme, allegory, etc.) which will later become typical of Symbolist literature. 2) Les Déliquescences. Poèmes décadents d’Adoré Floupette. Introduction. The collection Les Déliquescences offers a parody of mannerisms in Symbolist literature, particularly syntactical acrobatics, metrical virtuosity, and sinister motifs. The two designations Symbolisme and Décadentisme actually refer to a single literary movement. 3) Rimbaud from the Lettre du Voyant to the Bateau ivre. The theoretical text Lettre du Voyant and the narrative poem Le Bateau ivre share the same argumentative structure. It takes another two years before the revolution of poetry advocated by Rimbaud in these two texts is extended from semantic structures to versification. Bateau ivre is in fact moulded out of a still typically Parnassian metrical form. 4) Rimbaud, Une saison en enfer, « Adieu ». On Essentiality. The beginning of Adieu shows a stylistic feature that frequently occurs in Rimbaud’s poetry : the reduction of a syntagm to its factual core by the elimination of anything that derives from subjective perception. This feature reflects his idea that poetry should aim to tell the essence of things. 5) About Le Loup criait sous les feuilles by Arthur Rimbaud. Le loup criait sous les feuilles presents an obvious reference to the book of Ezekiel, in the Old Testament. Critics who intend to address the exegesis of a poet of such wide reading as Rimbaud ought to be conversant with the Scriptures. 6) Mallarmé, Autre éventail. Autre éventail is one of the best outcomes of Mallarmé’s poetics. The poem sets the elegant translation of a frivolous, typically Parnassian object, such as a fan, into a disincarnated image of the ultimate reality. As opposed to other poems by Mallarmé, this one closes with the return of the object to its basic function. 7) Paul Verlaine. ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΥΙΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡ. Analysis and comment. The poem ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΥΙΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡ is based on a thematic association between Christ and a fish, an association which refers to a well-grounded tradition in the Scriptures and in patristic literature. 8) Two poems by Verlaine. The composition of Cortège was influenced by the first version of Flaubert’s Tentation de Saint Antoine. In Verlaine’s poem, though, the original images are weakened and in some way coarsened. While searching for the sources of the poem Marco, one is led to reconstruct a whole literary cycle : the « history of Marco the courtesan » in XIXth century French literature.
Grata, G. E., Études sur le Symbolisme, di Sergio Cigada, a cura di Giuseppe Bernardelli e Marisa Verna, con introduzione di Marisa Verna / traduzione di Cigada, S., [Studi sul Simbolismo], EDUCatt, Milano 2011: 162 [http://hdl.handle.net/10807/7017]